Leader Follower of Quadrotor Micro Aerial Vehicle


  • Dwi Pebrianti Faculty of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, 26600, Pahang, Malaysia.
  • Yee Woon Chun Test Department, Texas Instrument Malaysia, Ampang/Ulu Klang Free Trade Zone, 54200, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
  • Yong Hooi Hao Electrical & Instrument Department, CNI Engineering Construction Sdn. Bhd., 81600, Johor, Malaysia.
  • Goh Ming Qian Faculty of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, 26600, Pahang, Malaysia.
  • Mahfuzah Mustafa Faculty of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, 26600, Pahang, Malaysia.
  • Rosdiyana Samad Faculty of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, 26600, Pahang, Malaysia.
  • Luhur Bayuaji Faculty of Computer Science & Software Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, 26300, Pahang, Malaysia.


Leader Follower, Micro Aerial Vehicle, Position Control, PID Controller, Quadrotor,


A Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) is known as a drone or in a bigger size is called Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Quadrotors are leading edge of a huge development in military and civilian such as disaster search and rescue, surveillance, aerial mapping and others. However, those applications limits by the payload delivered and long execution time. Hence, this study focuses on Leader-Follower approach of Quadrotor MAV. The study covers the development of quadrotor platform, modelling, controller design and leader-follower implementation. As the preliminary study, an Android phone is used as a leader which is used to provide the desired position and orientation to the follower quadrotor. The follower will be an autonomous quadrotor. Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controller for the position and attitude control are first designed and tested via simulation. Then, a real flight implementation is conducted. The result shows that the follower can follow the leader on a circular path and straight line path. The settling time for X, Y and Z position of the follower is 10.22, 10.90 and 19.45 seconds, respectively. Additionally, the overshoot percentage for X, Y and Z position are 7%, 0% and 0%, respectively.


Qin, W., Liu, Z., & Chen, Z, “Formation control for nonlinear multiagent systems with linear extended state observer”, IEEE/CAA Journal of Automatica Sinica, 1(2), pp: 171–179, 2014.

Abbas, R., & Wu, Q., “Improved Leader-Follower Formation controller for multiple Quadrotors based AFSA”, TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication Computing Electronics and Control), 13(1), pp: 85–92, 2015.

Nurul Amirah, I., Nor Liyana, O., Zain, Z. M., Dwi, P., & Luhur, B., “Attitude control of a quadrotor”, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Science, 10(22), pp: 17206-17211, 2015.

Tonetti, S., Hehn, M., Lupashin, S., & D’Andrea, R., “Distributed control of antenna array with formation of UAVs”, IFAC Proceedings Volumes (IFAC-PapersOnline), 18(PART 1), pp: 7848–7853, 2011.

Franchi, A., Masone, C., Grabe, V., Ryll, M., Bülthoff, H. H., & Giordano, P. R., “Modeling and Control of UAV Bearing Formations with Bilateral High-level Steering”, The International Journal of Robotics Research, 31(12), pp: 1504–1525, 2012.

Cheng, H., Chen, Y., Li, X., & Shing, W. W., “Autonomous takeoff, tracking and landing of a UAV on a moving UGV using onboard monocular vision”, Chinese Control Conference, CCC, pp: 5895–5901, 2013.

Ghamry, K. A., Dong, Y., Kamel, M. A., & Zhang, Y., “Real-time autonomous take-off, tracking and landing of UAV on a moving UGV platform”, 24th Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation, MED 2016, pp: 1236–1241, 2016.

Cheng, H., Chen, Y., & Wong, W. S., “Trajectory tracking and formation flight of autonomous UAVs in GPS-denied environments using onboard sensing”, 2014 IEEE Chinese Guidance, Navigation and Control Conference, CGNCC 2014, pp: 2639–2645, 2015.

Turpin, M., Michael, N., & Kumar, V., “Trajectory design and control for aggressive formation flight with quadrotors”, Autonomous Robots, 33(1–2), pp: 143–156, 2012.

Tamami, N., Pitowarno, E., & Astawa, I. G. P., “Proportional Derivative Active Force Control for “X Configuration Quadcopter”, Journal of Mechatronics, Electrical Power, and Vehicular Technology, 5(2), pp: 67-74, 2014.




How to Cite

Pebrianti, D., Chun, Y. W., Hao, Y. H., Qian, G. M., Mustafa, M., Samad, R., & Bayuaji, L. (2018). Leader Follower of Quadrotor Micro Aerial Vehicle. Journal of Telecommunication, Electronic and Computer Engineering (JTEC), 10(1-2), 67–73. Retrieved from https://jtec.utem.edu.my/jtec/article/view/3323

Most read articles by the same author(s)