Review on Improvement of Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Algorithm based on Time Execution, Differential Cryptanalysis and Level of Security


  • Mustafa Emad Hameed Department of Computer Techniques Engineering, Bilad Al-rafidan University College, Diyala, Baqubah - Baghdad New Road-5, Baqubah, Iraq
  • Masrullizam Mat Ibrahim Faculty of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Durian Tunggal, Melaka, Malaysia.
  • Nurulfajar Abd Manap Faculty of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Durian Tunggal, Melaka, Malaysia.


AES, Differential Cryptanalysis, Level of Security, MAES, Time Execution,


Multimedia data (text, audio, image, animation and video) have been widely used in the past few years for advanced digital content transmission. With the network technology focusing on Internet of Things (IoT) nowadays, the security of the multimedia content has raised researchers' concerns. The exchange of digital data over a network has exposed the multimedia data to various kinds of abuse such as Brute-Force attacks, unauthorized access, and network hacking. Therefore, the system must be safeguarded with an efficient media-aware security framework such as encryption methods that make use of standard symmetric encryption algorithms, which will be responsible for ensuring the security of the multimedia data. For the encryption of electronic data, one of the most prominent cryptographic algorithms is the Advanced Encryption Standard algorithm: A symmetric block cipher that was established by the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). However, some of the challenges arising from the use of this algorithm are computational overhead, use of a fixed S-Box (which is a point of weakness) and pattern problems, which occur when handling more complex multimedia data such as text, image and video. Many researchers have carried out research aiming at improving the algorithm’s performance. This paper summarizes the modifications and benchmarks the performance results of the modified AES algorithms proposed by researchers in the previous studies.


P. Telagarapu, B. Biswal, and V. S. Guntuku, “Security of image in multimedia applications,” Proc. - 2011 Int. Conf. Energy, Autom. Signal, ICEAS - 2011, pp. 144–148, 2011.

Y. C. Mei and S. Zarina Md Naziri, “The FPGA implementation of multiplicative inverse value of GF(28) generator using Extended Euclid Algorithm (EEA) method for Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm,” ICCAIE 2011 - 2011 IEEE Conf. Comput. Appl. Ind. Electron., no. Iccaie, pp. 12–15, 2011.

M. S. Reddy and Y. A. Babu, “Evaluation Of Microblaze and Implementation Of AES Algorithm using Spartan-3E,” vol. 2, no. 7, pp. 3341–3347, 2013.

R. Concepts, “White Paper AES Encryption and Related Concepts,” pp. 0–4.

S. C. Dhatrika, D. Puvvula, and S. V. Gopal, “A Novel Approach For AES Algorithm In Image Encryption,” vol. 8354, no. 4, pp. 85– 92, 2015.

A. Abdulgader, M. Ismail, N. Zainal, and T. Idbeaa, “Enhancement of AES algorithm based on chaotic maps and shift operation for image encryption,” J. Theor. Appl. Inf. Technol., vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 1–12, 2015.

S. Ali Abaas and A. Kareem Shibeeb, “A New Approach for Video Encryption Based on Modified AES Algorithm,” IOSR J. Comput. Eng., vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 2278–661, 2015.

S. Hameed, F. Riaz, R. Moghal, G. Akhtar, A. Ahmed, and A. G. Dar, “Modified Advanced Encryption Standard For Text And Images,” vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 120–129, 2011.

P. Kawle, A. Hiwase, G. Bagde, E. Tekam, and R. Kalbande, “Modified Advanced Encryption Standard,” Int. J. Soft Comput. Eng., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 21–23, 2014.

Harleen Kaur, Reena Mehla "Image Encryption Using AES with Modified Transformation" International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), Volume 3 Issue 7, July 2014,pp.360 – 363.

S. M. Wadi and N. Zainal, "A low-cost implementation of modified advanced encryption standard algorithm using 8085A microprocessor," J. Eng. Sci. Technol., vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 406–415, 2013.

S. M. Wadi and N. Zainal, “High Definition Image Encryption Algorithm Based on AES Modification,” Wirel. Pers. Commun., vol. 79, no. 2, pp. 811–829, 2014.

S. M. Wadi and N. Zainal, “Rapid Encryption Method based on AES Algorithm for Grey Scale HD Image Encryption,” Procedia Technol., vol. 11, no. Iceei, pp. 51–56, 2013.

P. Deshmukh, V. Kolhe “Modified AES Based Algorithm for MPEG Video Encryption" International Conference on Information Communication and Embedded Systems (ICICES2014), IEEE.

P. Kumar and S. B. Rana, “Development of modified AES algorithm for data security,” Optik (Stuttg)., vol. 127, no. 4, pp. 2341–2345, 2016.

A. M. Sagheer, S. S. Al-Rawi, and O. A. Dawood, “Proposing of developed advance encryption standard,” Proc. - 4th Int. Conf. Dev. eSystems Eng. DeSE 2011, pp. 197–202, 2011.

O. B. Sahoo, D. K. Kole, and H. Rahaman, “An optimized S-Box for advanced encryption standard (AES) design,” Proc. - 2012 Int. Conf. Adv. Comput. Commun. ICACC 2012, pp. 154–157, 2012.

Hasan M. Azzawi “Enhancing The Encryption Process Of Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) By Using Proposed Algorithm To Generate S-Box” Journal of Engineering and Development, Vol. 18, No.2, March 2014, ISSN 1813- 7822, pp. 89- 105.

V.Pandli, m.Pathuri, S. Yandrathi and A. Razaque “Improvising performance of Advanced Encryption Standard Algorithm”. Mobile andSecure Services (MobiSecServ), Second International ConferenceIEEE, 24 March 2016.

A. A. Abed and A. A. Jawad, “FPGA implementation of a modified advanced encryption standard algorithm,” 2013 Int. Conf. Electr. Commun. Comput. Power, Control Eng. ICECCPCE 2013, pp. 46– 51, 2014.

C.-W. Huang, Y.-H. Tu, H.-C. Yeh, S.-H. Liu, and C.-J. Chang, “Image observation on the modified ECB operations in Advanced Encryption Standard,” Inf. Soc. (i-Society), 2011 Int. Conf., pp. 264– 269, 2011.

D.Rahul Gandh, V.Kamalakannan, R.Balamurugan and R.Balamurugan "FPGA Implementation of Enhanced Key Expansion Algorithm for AdvancedEncryption Standard" International Conference on Contemporary Computing and Informatics (IC3I),2014, pages 409 – 413.

L. Scripcariu and M. D. Frunză, “Modified Advanced Encryption Standard,” vol. 3, no. 23, pp. 23–26, 2012.

C. Science, “Enhance Security of Advance Encryption Standard Algorithm Based on Key-dependent S-Box,” in IEEE, 2015, pp. 44– 53.

M. Cretu and C. G. Apostol, “A modified version of Rijndael algorithm implemented to analyze the cyphertexts correlation for switched S-Boxes,” 2012 9th Int. Conf. Commun. COMM 2012 -Conf. Proc., no. 3, pp. 331–334, 2012.

Y. Wu, S. Member, J. P. Noonan, and L. Member, “NPCR and UACI Randomness Tests for Image Encryption,” Cyber Journals Multidiscip. Journals Sci. Technol. J. Sel. Areas Telecommun., pp. 31–38, 2011.




How to Cite

Hameed, M. E., Mat Ibrahim, M., & Abd Manap, N. (2018). Review on Improvement of Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Algorithm based on Time Execution, Differential Cryptanalysis and Level of Security. Journal of Telecommunication, Electronic and Computer Engineering (JTEC), 10(1), 139–145. Retrieved from

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>