Key Successful Factors for Virtual University Implementation: A Literature Study
AbstractIn enhancing the quality of teaching and learning process, university is using internet as media to leverage education system. The technology has shifted the learning paradigm from traditional to online learning. The technology used as tools to support learning activity are curriculum development, content creation, interaction between lecturer and student, and assessment. It is not easy to successfully implement the virtual university because it will spend huge investment for infrastructure. The purpose of this article was to find out key successful factors for virtual university implementation. It was a literature study by reviewing various journal related on virtual university topic. There were 133 papers retrieved by using keyword “virtual university” and/ or “virtual campus” and those papers were published after the year 2000. Retrieved papers were synthesized into 100 relevant titles, then selected into 32 papers to review. These selected papers were then reviewed to answer the research questions in virtual university area. The research’s result finds 12 key successful factors for virtual university implementation
L. Harasim, “Shift happens: Online education as a new paradigm in learning,” Internet High. Educ., vol. 3, no. 1–2, pp. 41–61, 2000.
M. Lou Maher, B. Skow, and A. Cicognani, “Designing the virtual campus,” Des. Stud., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 319–342, 1999.
Stacey, Elizabeth and M. Rice, Mary, “Evaluating an online learning environment,” Aust. J. Educ. Technol., vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 323–320, 2002.
F. Birgit and G. Schlageter, “Computer Uses in Education; *Distance Education; Educational Change; Foreign Countries; Higher Education; *Instructional,” World Conf. WWW Internet Proc., no. 2, 2001.
M. Stansfield, T. Connolly, A. Cartelli, A. Jimoyiannis, H. Magalhaes, and K. Maillet, “The Identification of Key Issues in the Development of Sustainable e-Learning and Virtual Campus Initiatives,” Electron. J. eLearning, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 155–164, 2009.
T. Guasch, I. Alvarez, and A. Espasa, “University teacher competencies in a virtual teaching/learning environment: Analysis of a teacher training experience,” Teach. Teach. Educ., vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 199–206, 2010.
H. Wang, Y. Zhang, and J. Cao, “Effective collaboration with information sharing in virtual universities,” IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng., vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 840–853, 2009.
J. Garofalakis, E. Sakkopoulos, S. Sirmakessis, and A. Tsakalidis, “Integrating Adaptive Techniques into Virtual University Learning Environment Evangelos Sakkopoulos,” IEEE Int. Conf. Adv. Learn. Technol., no. 9, pp. 28–33, 2002.
J.-M. Thiriet, M. Robert, P. Lappalainen, M. H. W. Hoffmann, M. J. M. Martins, and A. Seoane, “Toward a Pan-European virtual university in electrical and information engineering,” IEEE Trans. Educ., vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 152–160, 2002.
B. Jaeger, “What educational activities fit virtual worlds: Towards a theoretical evaluation framework,” DEST 2009 3rd IEEE Int. Conf. Digit. Ecosyst. Technol., pp. 715–720, 2009.
D. Becking and G. Schlageter, “A collaborative lab- and learning environment for a virtual database-practical at the virtual university,” Int. Conf. Comput. Educ. Proc., pp. 1–2, 2002.
D. Rebolj and K. Menzel, “Another Step Towards a Virtual University in Construction It,” Constuction, vol. 9, no. July, pp. 257–266, 2004.
Al Ghamdi, a. Samarji, and a. Watt, “Essential Considerations in Distance Education in KSA: Teacher Immediacy in a Virtual Teaching and Learning Environment,” Int. J. Inf. Educ. Technol., vol. 6, no. 1, pp.
D. Stricker, D. Weibel, and B. Wissmath, “Efficient learning using a virtual learning environment in a university class,” Comput. Educ., vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 495–504, 2011.
M. N. Amutabi and M. O. Oketch, “Experimenting in distance education: the African Virtual University (AVU) and the paradox of the World Bank in Kenya,” Int. J. Educ. Dev., vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 57–73, 2003.
A. Petrakou, “Interacting through avatars: Virtual worlds as a context for online education,” Comput. Educ., vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 1020–1027, 2010.
C. J. MacDonald, E. J. Stodel, L. G. Farres, K. Breithaupt, and M. a Gabriel, “The demand-driven learning model, A Framework for Webbased Learning,” Internet High. Educ., vol. 4, pp. 9–30, 2001.
D. Stallings, “The virtual university: legitimized at century’s end: future uncertain for the new millennium,” J. Acad. Librariansh., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 3–14, 2000.
D. Stallings, “The virtual university: Organizing to survive in the 21st Century,” J. Acad. Librariansh., vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 3–14, 2001. M. Drlik and J. Skalka, “Virtual
Faculty Development Using Top-down Implementation Strategy and Adapted EES Model,” Procedia - Soc. Behav. Sci., vol. 28, pp. 616–621, 2011
R. Hartwig, J. K. Triebe, and M. Herczeg, “Usability Engineering as an Important Part of Quality Management for a Virtual University,” pp. 92, 2002.
S. Payr, “The Virtual University’s Faculty: An Overview of Educational Agents,” Appl. Artif. Intell., vol. 17, pp. 1–19, 2003.
H. Coates, “A model of online and general campus‐based student engagement,” Assess. Eval. High. Educ., vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 121–141, 2007.
A. B. Johnson and J. M. Boyd, “Content, Community, and Collaboration at ESRI Virtual Campus: A GIS Company’s Perspective on Creating an Online Learning Resource,” J. Geogr. High. Educ., vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 115–121, 2005.
M. Monteith and J. Smith, “Learning in a Virtual Campus: The Pedagogical Implications of Students’ Experiences,” Innov. Educ. Teach. Int., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 119–132, 2001.
M. Oliver, C. Bradley, and T. Boyle, “The distributed development of quality courses for a virtual university,” Alt-J, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 16–27, 2001.
S. Bronack, R. Riedl, and J. Tashner, “Learning in the zone: A social constructivist framework for distance education in a 3-dimensional virtual world,” Interact. Learn. Environ., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 219-232,
S. C. Baker, R. K. Wentz, and M. M. Woods, “Using Virtual Worlds in Education: Second Life® as an Educational Tool,” Teach. Psychol., vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 59–64, 2009.
M. Pursula, M. Warsta, and I. Laaksonen, “Virtual university–a vehicle for development, cooperation and internationalisation in teaching and learning,” Eur. J. Eng. Educ., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 439–446, 2005.
D. (University of G. Masoumi and B. (University of G. Lindström, “Quality in e-learning: a framework for promoting and assuring quality in virtual institutions,” J. Comput. Assist. Learn., vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 27–41, 2012.
J. O’Donoghue, G. Singh, and L. Horward, “Virtual education in universities: a technological imperative,” Br. J. Educ. echnol., vol. 32,
no. 5, pp. 511–523, 2001.
K. Vignare, “What to Expect from a Virtual University,” New Dir. High. Educ., vol. 2009, no. 146, pp. 97–105, 2009.
M. Kadavova, A. Slaby, and F. Maly, “Key Factors Involving the Design of the System of Virtual University,” 7th WSEAS Int. Conf. Appl. Comput. Appl. Comput. Sci., pp. 678–683, 2008.
P. Nilsen, “Making sense of implementation theories, models and frameworks,” Implement. Sci., vol. 10, no. 1, p. 53, 2015.
How to Cite
TRANSFER OF COPYRIGHT AGREEMENT
The manuscript is herewith submitted for publication in the Journal of Telecommunication, Electronic and Computer Engineering (JTEC). It has not been published before, and it is not under consideration for publication in any other journals. It contains no material that is scandalous, obscene, libelous or otherwise contrary to law. When the manuscript is accepted for publication, I, as the author, hereby agree to transfer to JTEC, all rights including those pertaining to electronic forms and transmissions, under existing copyright laws, except for the following, which the author(s) specifically retain(s):
- All proprietary right other than copyright, such as patent rights
- The right to make further copies of all or part of the published article for my use in classroom teaching
- The right to reuse all or part of this manuscript in a compilation of my own works or in a textbook of which I am the author; and
- The right to make copies of the published work for internal distribution within the institution that employs me
I agree that copies made under these circumstances will continue to carry the copyright notice that appears in the original published work. I agree to inform my co-authors, if any, of the above terms. I certify that I have obtained written permission for the use of text, tables, and/or illustrations from any copyrighted source(s), and I agree to supply such written permission(s) to JTEC upon request.