A Framework for Enhancing Digital Trust of Quranic Text Using Blockchain Technology
Keywords:Digital Trust, Quranic Text, Blockchain Technology, Distributed Ledger, Ethereum Blockchain,
AbstractThe Holy Quran is the fundamental Islamic scripture revealed to the Prophet Muhammad (Peace and Blessings of Allah be upon him) for the past 1400 years. In today’s Internet, there exist online sources which provide incomplete or false Quranic text which may either be published deliberately or unintentionally. The research investigates the possibility of developing a digital trust framework that secures the integrity of the Quranic text using blockchain technology. The research uses blockchain technology as the emerging secured distributed ledger to establish digital trust. The Ethereum blockchain platform was used to validate the proposed framework. The proposed digital trust framework was developed in a three-level architecture consisting of participants, digital trust and Quranic text. The key components of the proposed framework were found useful in Ethereum blockchain platform for effective use in distributed ledger, distributed consensus, smart contract, decentralized application development and cryptographic algorithms for database encryption and user authentication in Whisper, Swarm and Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM). The findings show the effectiveness, efficiency and usability of the proposed digital trust framework on the Ethereum blockchain platform and demonstrate how user of Quran and blockchain miner interact with the system to verify and validate Quranic content. The research has recommended the use of blockchain technology to secure the integrity of the Quranic text. The work facilitates the protection of the Quranic text as well as proving a mean to verify the authenticity of the Quranic content.
A. A. Aliyu and A. A. Abdu, “Research Framework Development on the Effect of Intangible Location Attributes on the Values of Residential Properties in Jos, Nigeria,” Dev. Ctry. Stud. www.iiste.org Res., vol. 5, no. 16, pp. 8–31, 2015.
M. G. M. Mostafa and I. M. Ibrahim, “Securing the Digital Script of the Holy Quran on the Internet,” in 2013 Taibah Univ. Int. Conf. Adv. Inf. Technol. Holy Quran Its Sci., 2013, pp. 57–60.
M. S. Khalil, F. Kurniawan, M. K. Khan, and Y. M. Alginahi, “Twolayer fragile watermarking method secured with chaotic map for authentication of digital holy Quran,” Sci. World J., vol. 2014, 2014.
A. Alqurneh, A. Mustapha, M. A. A. Murad, and N. M. Sharef, “Stylometric model for detecting oath expressions: A case study for Quranic texts,” Lit. Linguist Computing 2016; vol. 31, pp. 1-20, 2014.
A. M. Iqbal, Rizwan, “An experience of developing Quran ontology with contextual information support,” Multicult. Educ. Technol. J., vol. 7.4, pp. 333–343, 2013.
N. Nawaz and S. F. Jahangir, “Effects of memorizing Quran by heart (Hifz) on later academic achievement,” J. Islam. Stud., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 58–64, 2015.
M. Swan. Blockchain: Blueprint for a New Economy, February 2. The United States of America: O’Reilly Media, 2015.
L. Howard, “Whitepaper on Distributed Ledger Technology” [Online]. Available: http://www.hkma.gov.hk/media/eng/doc/keyfunctions/finanicalinfrastructure/Whitepaper_On_Distributed_Ledger_Technology.pdf
N. Atzei, M. Bartoletti, and T. Cimoli, “A survey of attacks on Ethereum smart contracts, (SoK)” in Proc. International Conference on Principles of Security and Trust. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2017, pp. 1–22.
R. E. Samuel, “A Layered Architectural Approach To Understanding Distributed Cryptographic Ledgers,” Issues Inf. Syst., vol. 17, no. IV, pp. 222–226, 2016.
C. Grant and A. Osanloo, “Understanding, Selecting, and Integrating a Theoretical Framework in Dissertation Research: Creating the Blueprint for Your ‘House,’” Adm. Issues J. Educ. Pract. Res., pp. 12– 26, 2014.
C. D. Schultz, “A trust framework model for situational contexts,” in Proc. 2006 Int. Conf. Privacy, Secur. Trust Bridg. Gap Between PST Technol. Bus. Serv. - PST ’06, 2006, p. 1.
F. Moyano, C. Fernandez-Gago, and J. Lopez, “A conceptual framework for trust models,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. (including Subser. Lect. Notes Artif. Intell. Lect. Notes Bioinformatics), vol. 7449 LNCS, no. 256980, pp. 93–104, 2012.
T. Judgi and P. Varalakshmi, “A Survey on Trust Management in Cloud Computing,” Adv. Nat. Appl. Sci., vol. 20, pp. 416–420, 2015.
G. F. Marias, K. Papapanagiotou, V. Tsetsos, O. Sekkas, and P. Georgiadis, “Integrating a trust framework with a distributed certificate validation scheme for MANETs,” Eurasip J. Wirel. Commun. Netw., vol. 2006, pp. 1–18, 2006.
K. J. R. Liu, “Information theoretic framework of trust modeling and evaluation for ad hoc networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 305–317, 2006.
R. Dennis and G. Owenson, “Rep on the Roll: A Peer to Peer Reputation System Based on a Rolling Blockchain,” International Journal of Digital Society (IJDS), vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 1123–1134, March 2016.
J. A. Seppälä, “The role of trust in understanding the effects of blockchain on business models” [Online]. Available: https://aaltodoc.aalto.fi/bitstream/handle/123456789/23302/master_S epp%C3%A4l%C3%A4_Jane_2016.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
Y. L. Sun, Z. Han, W. Yu, and K. Liu, “A trust evaluation framework in distributed networks: Vulnerability analysis and defense against attacks,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM 2006. 25TH IEEE Int. Conf. Comput. Commun., vol. 6, no. c, pp. 1–13, 2006.
Z. Y. and S. Holtmanns. Trust Modeling and Management: from Social Trust to Digital Trust. IGI Global, 2008, pp. 290-323.
W. Sherchan and C. Paris, “A Survey of Trust in Social Networks,” ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR), vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 1–33, 2013.
W. K. Wong, S. O. Cheung, T. W. Yiu, and H. Y. Pang, “A framework for trust in construction contracting,” Int. J. Proj. Manag., vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 821–829, 2008.
H. Li and M. Singhal, “Trust management in distributed systems,” Computer vol. 40, pp. 45–53, 2007.
T. W. Um, G. M. Lee, and J. K. Choi, “Strengthening trust in the future ICT infrastructure,” in Proceedings of the 2015 ITU Kaleidoscope: Trust in the Information Society, K-2015 - Academic Conference. 2016.
A. H. Networks, J. Cho, A. Swami, and I. Chen, “A Survey on Trust Management for Mobile Ad hoc Network,” IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 13, pp. 562-583, 2011.
F. Tschorsch and B. Scheuermann, “Bitcoin and Beyond: A Technical Survey on Decentralized Digital Currencies,” IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol, 18, pp. 2084-2123, 2015.
D. Quercia, S. Hailes, and L. Capra, “B-trust: Bayesian trust framework for pervasive computing,” in International Conference on Trust Management. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, vol. 3986 LNCS, no. vii, pp. 298–312, 2006.
E. Wustrow and B. VanderSloot, “DDoSCoin: Cryptocurrency with a Malicious Proof-of-Work,” in Proceedings of the 10th USENIX Conference on Offensive Technologies. USENIX Association, (WOOT 16), 2016.
L. Kagal, S. Cost, T. Finin, Y. Peng, and C. Science, “A framework for distributed trust management,” in Proc. IJCAI-01 Work, 2001.
D. Zissis and D. Lekkas, “Addressing cloud computing security issues,” Futur. Gener. Comput. Syst., vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 583–592, 2012.
A., Neuwirth, N. Sinai, and M. Marx (eds). The Qurʾān in context: historical and literary investigations into the Qurʾānic milieu. Brill, 2009.
S. Ghafouri-Fard and S. M. Akrami, “Man evolution an Islamic point of view,” Eur. J. Sci. Theol., vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 17–28, 2011.
A. M. Sharaf, “The Qur’an Annotation for Text Mining,” [Online]. Available: http://textminingthequran.com/papers/firstyear.pdf
I. C. Gaps,“The State of Cybersecurity and Digital Trust 2016 to Rethink State of the Art” [Online]. Available: https://www.accenture.com/t20160704T014005__w__/usen/_acnmedia/PDF-23/Accenture-State-Cybersecurity-and-DigitalTrust-2016-Report-June.pdf
S. Hakak, A. Kamsin, M. Y. Idna Idris, A. Gani, T. Herawan, and S. Zerdoumi, “Preserving Content Integrity of Digital Holy Quran: Survey and Open Challenges,” IEEE Access, vol. 3536, p. 1, 2017.
S. Nakamoto, “Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System” [Online]. Available: https://bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf
METI, “Survey on Blockchain Technologies and Related Services FY2015 Report” [Online]. Available: www.meti.go.jp/english/press/2016/pdf/0531_01e.pdf
R. Beck, J. Stenum Czepluch, N. Lollike, and S. Malone, “Blockchain - The Gateway to trust-free cryptographic Transactions,” in TwentyFourth European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), 2016, pp. 1–14.
J. Condos, W. Sorrell and S. Donegan, “Blockchain Technology: Opportunities and Risks” [Online]. Available: http://legislature.vermont.gov/assets/Legislative-Reports/blockchaintechnology-report-final.pdf
U. K. Government and C. Scientific (2016), “Distributed Ledger Technology: beyond block chain,” [Online]. Available: https://www.gov.uk/government/distributed-ledger-technologybeyond-block-chain
J. Mattila, “The Blockchain Phenomenon the Disruptive Potential of Distributed Consensus Architectures,” The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy, vol. 2420, no. 38, 2016.
C. A. Vyas and M. Lunagaria, “Security Concerns and Issues for Bitcoin,” Int. J. Comput. Appl., pp. 10–12, 2014.
P. Barton, “Bitcoin and the Politics of Distributed Trust (Senior Thesis)” [Online]. Available: https://scholarship.tricolib.brynmawr.edu/handle/10066/16548
N. Zhumabekuly Aitzhan and D. Svetinovic, “Security and Privacy in Decentralized Energy Trading through Multi-signatures, Blockchain and Anonymous Messaging Streams,” IEEE Trans. Dependable Secur. Comput., vol. 5971, no. c, p. 1, 2016.
I. Lin and T. Liao, “A Survey of Blockchain Security Issues and Challenges,” IJ Network Security, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 653–659, 2017.
A. Beikverdi and J. Song, “Trend of centralization in Bitcoin’s distributed network,” in Proc 2015 IEEE/ACIS 16th Int. Conf. Softw. Eng. Artif. Intell. Netw. Parallel/Distributed Comput. SNPD 2015, vol. 16, pp. 1–6., 2015.
M. O. Dair, D. Neilson, and P. Pacifico (2016), “Music on The Blockchain Lead Researcher” [Online]. Available: https://www.mdx.ac.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0026/Music-On-TheBlockchain.pdf
P. De Filippi, “The interplay between decentralization and privacy: the case of blockchain technologies” [Online]. Available: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2852689
P. De Filippi, “The invisible politics of Bitcoin: governance crisis of a decentralised infrastructure,” Internet Policy Rev., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 1– 28, 2016.
A. Baliga, “The Blockchain Landscape” [Online]. Available: https://www.persistent.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/TheBlockchain-Landscape-.pdf
M. Mwale, “Modelling the Dynamics of the Bitcoin Blockchain” [Online]. Available: http://scholar.sun.ac.za/bitstream/handle/10019.1/98844/mwale_mod elling_2016.pdf?sequence=2.
J. Dienelt , “‘Understanding Ethereum.’ New York, NY: CoinDesk.” [Online]. Available: https://forum.daohub.org/uploads/default/original/2X/b/b583e2bb2e6 998bfec40d488b1709deb53abdc4a.pdf
Ethereum, “Solidity Documentation” [Online]. Available: https://media.readthedocs.org/pdf/solidity/develop/solidity.pdf
How to Cite
TRANSFER OF COPYRIGHT AGREEMENT
The manuscript is herewith submitted for publication in the Journal of Telecommunication, Electronic and Computer Engineering (JTEC). It has not been published before, and it is not under consideration for publication in any other journals. It contains no material that is scandalous, obscene, libelous or otherwise contrary to law. When the manuscript is accepted for publication, I, as the author, hereby agree to transfer to JTEC, all rights including those pertaining to electronic forms and transmissions, under existing copyright laws, except for the following, which the author(s) specifically retain(s):
- All proprietary right other than copyright, such as patent rights
- The right to make further copies of all or part of the published article for my use in classroom teaching
- The right to reuse all or part of this manuscript in a compilation of my own works or in a textbook of which I am the author; and
- The right to make copies of the published work for internal distribution within the institution that employs me
I agree that copies made under these circumstances will continue to carry the copyright notice that appears in the original published work. I agree to inform my co-authors, if any, of the above terms. I certify that I have obtained written permission for the use of text, tables, and/or illustrations from any copyrighted source(s), and I agree to supply such written permission(s) to JTEC upon request.