Cloud-Based In-Vehicle Air Quality Monitoring System with GSM Module
Keywords:Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Cloud-Based, GSM module, Real-Time Monitoring,
AbstractThe purpose of this study is to develop a monitoring system that not limited to real-time vehicle tracking, but also with the ability to monitor in-vehicle air quality. In vehicle air quality is referred to indoor air quality (IAQ) inside the vehicle cabin which is lacked of awareness among driver nowadays. Previous research indicates that human spend up to 90% of their daily time inside the closed circulated air environment including, the vehicle. Prolonged use of air recirculation inside the vehicle cabin can lead to a gradual accumulation of carbon dioxide (CO2) which may occur the symptoms such as fatigue, headaches, and dizziness even deleterious effects on cognitive function towards the occupants. Vehicle cabin is an enclosed environment to prevent the outdoor air directly flow inside the vehicle cabin. However, when the vehicle speed increases the air pressure will be applied onto the joint of the car body and created some leakages then the outdoor air can flow into the cabin then may change the IAQ. A Global System for Mobile (GSM) communications module is utilised as a proxy to push the aggregated information such as real-time vehicle location, IAQ status and timestamps into the cloud database with an iteration of the 30s. The average time delayed for data to reach the cloud database is approximate 3.6s from the time it transmitted. Through the Android mobile application, the user can observe the in-vehicle air quality with the current location in two optional modes: real-time or historical data. The developed device and system were compared with off the shelf device (AeroQual). The Bland-Altman plot method was applied to validate the result of in-vehicle air quality system. The coefficient of determination (R2) value between these two devices is approximately 0.9. The in-vehicle air quality with vehicle tracking system has been successfully developed and provided a reliable result.
L. S. Gale, B. R., Trostel, M., Armitage, D., Mason, M. A., & Bautista, “Case Study: Successful Implementation of Driving Safety and IVMS Program,” 2011.
J. L. Bell, M. A. Taylor, G. X. Chen, R. D. Kirk, and E. R. Leatherman, “Evaluation of an in-vehicle monitoring system (IVMS) to reduce risky driving behaviors in commercial drivers: Comparison of in-cab warning lights and supervisory coaching with videos of driving behavior,” J. Safety Res., vol. 60, pp. 125–136, 2017.
J. L. Dennis Adler, Packard. Motorbooks Insenational, 2004.
A. Szczurek and M. Maciejewska, “Categorisation for air quality assessment in car cabin,” Transp. Res. Part D Transp. Environ., vol. 48, pp. 161–170, 2016.
A. Kadiyala and A. Kumar, “Quantification of in-vehicle gaseous contaminants of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide under varying climatic conditions,” Air Qual. Atmos. Heal., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 215– 224, 2013.
L. Abi-Esber and M. El-Fadel, “Indoor to outdoor air quality associations with self-pollution implications inside passenger car cabins,” Atmos. Environ., vol. 81, pp. 450–463, 2013.
A. Szczurek and M. Maciejewska, “Classification of Air Quality Inside Car Cabin using Sensor System,” no. JANUARY 2015, pp. 211–219, 2006.
A. T. Chan and M. W. Chung, “Indoor-outdoor air quality relationships in vehicle: Effect of driving environment and ventilation modes,” Atmos. Environ., vol. 37, no. 27, pp. 3795–3808, 2003.
D. Müller, D. Klingelhöfer, S. Uibel, and D. a Groneberg, “Car indoor air pollution - analysis of potential sources.,” J. Occup. Med. Toxicol., vol. 6, no. 1, p. 33, 2011.
H. Jung, “Modeling CO 2 Concentrations in Vehicle Cabin,” pp. 1–6, 2013.
M. L. Grady, H. Jung, Y. C. Kim, J. K. Park, and B. C. Lee, “Vehicle Cabin Air Quality with Fractional Air Recirculation,” 2013.
X. Zhang, P. Wargocki, and Z. Lian, “Effects of Exposure to Carbon Dioxide and Human Bioeffluents on Cognitive Performance,” Procedia Eng., vol. 121, pp. 138–142, 2015.
C. F. Chiu, M. H. Chen, and F. H. Chang, “Carbon dioxide concentrations and temperatures within tour buses under real-time traffic conditions,” PLoS One, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 1–12, 2015.
The AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety, “Prevalence of Motor Vehicle Crashes Involving Drowsy,” no. November, pp. 1–8, 2014.
C. C. Goh, L. M. Kamarudin, S. Shukri, N. S. Abdullah, and A. Zakaria, “Monitoring of carbon dioxide (CO2) accumulation in vehicle cabin,” 2016 3rd Int. Conf. Electron. Des., pp. 427–432, 2016.
DOSH, “Industry Code of Practice on Indoor Air Quality,” Minist. Hum. Resour. Dep. Occup. Saf. Heal., pp. 1–50, 2010.
S. a Rice, “Health Effects of Acute and Prolonged Co 2 Exposure in Normal and Sensitive Populations *,” Third Anu. Conf. Carbon Sequestration, pp. 5–8, 2003.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “Carbon Dioxide as a Fire Suppressant Examining the Risks,” Environ. Prot., no. February, 2000.
L. H. Kajtár, Herczeg, “Human Well-Being and Intensity of Mental Work,” Q. J. Hungarian Meteorol. Serv., vol. 116, no. January, pp. 145–169, 2012.
J. G. Allen, P. MacNaughton, U. Satish, S. Santanam, J. Vallarino, and J. D. Spengler, “Associations of Cognitive Function Scores with Carbon Dioxide, Ventilation, and Volatile Organic Compound Exposures in Office Workers: A Controlled Exposure Study of Green and Conventional Office Environments,” Environ. Health Perspect., vol. Online 26, no. October, 2015.
U. Jaimini, T. Banerjee, W. Romine, K. Thirunarayan, A. Sheth, and M. Kalra, “Investigation of an Indoor Air Quality Sensor for Asthma Management in Children,” IEEE Sensors Lett., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 1–1, 2017.
D. Lohani and D. Acharya, “Real Time In-Vehicle Air Quality Monitoring Using Mobile Sensing,” pp. 0–5, 2016.
W. Fuertes et al., “Distributed system as internet of things for a new low-cost, air pollution wireless monitoring on real time,” Proc. - 2015 IEEE/ACM 19th Int. Symp. Distrib. Simul. Real Time Appl. DS-RT 2015, pp. 58–67, 2016.
Atmel, “ATmega1280 - Summary Datasheet,” 2014. [Online]. Available: http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/DeviceDoc/Atmel-2549-8- bit-AVR-Microcontroller-ATmega640-1280-1281-2560- 2561_Summary.pdf. [Accessed: 12-Jun-2017].
“Series 500 – Portable Air Quality Sensor,” Aeroqual Limited, 2014. [Online]. Available: http://www.aeroqual.com/product/series-500- portable-air-pollution-monitor. [Accessed: 14-Jan-2016].
K. Arshak, F. Adepoju, and K. Hayes, “Tracking Wireless BioMedical Sensors : Result Validation with the Bland-Altman Plots,” 2008.
M. Poh, S. Member, N. C. Swenson, and R. W. Picard, “MotionTolerant Magnetic Earring Sensor and Wireless Earpiece for Wearable Photoplethysmography,” vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 786–794, 2010.
T. J. P. Matton, “Simulation and Analysis of Air Recirculation Control Strategies to Control Carbon Dioxide Build-up Inside a Vehicle Cabin,” University of Windsor, 2015.
How to Cite
TRANSFER OF COPYRIGHT AGREEMENT
The manuscript is herewith submitted for publication in the Journal of Telecommunication, Electronic and Computer Engineering (JTEC). It has not been published before, and it is not under consideration for publication in any other journals. It contains no material that is scandalous, obscene, libelous or otherwise contrary to law. When the manuscript is accepted for publication, I, as the author, hereby agree to transfer to JTEC, all rights including those pertaining to electronic forms and transmissions, under existing copyright laws, except for the following, which the author(s) specifically retain(s):
- All proprietary right other than copyright, such as patent rights
- The right to make further copies of all or part of the published article for my use in classroom teaching
- The right to reuse all or part of this manuscript in a compilation of my own works or in a textbook of which I am the author; and
- The right to make copies of the published work for internal distribution within the institution that employs me
I agree that copies made under these circumstances will continue to carry the copyright notice that appears in the original published work. I agree to inform my co-authors, if any, of the above terms. I certify that I have obtained written permission for the use of text, tables, and/or illustrations from any copyrighted source(s), and I agree to supply such written permission(s) to JTEC upon request.