Lightning Protection of Aircraft, Power Systems and Houses Containing IT Network Electronics
Keywords:Airborne Lightning Protection, Building and Systems Protection, Lightning Protection, Power Network Protection,
AbstractOver the past decade, there has been an increasing interest in lightning and lightning protection for several reasons, including the proliferation of microelectronic equipment and IT systems in mission-critical systems as well as in everyday use in banks to homes. Lightning strikes to power lines produce large fast transient voltage and current surges which trickle down to IT systems, military command and control systems as well as to several other microelectronic equipment and control systems. Moreover, aircraft are struck by lightning when it is parked on ground, landing and taking off or in military operations where the aircraft has to keep close to the ground even when the atmosphere is electrified by thunderclouds. In this paper, we explore the protection of electronic equipment, structures and in-house systems from lightning. The paper will also explore lightning related Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) threat to aerospace vehicles and microelectronic systems. This is especially so with the increased use of non-metallic, composite material for the aircraft body. Moreover, the paper will report on the important lightning techniques used in the protection of electric power systems and houses.
J. Williams, “Why is an airplane safe from lightning strikes?” The Washington Post [Online], Aug. 2014. Available: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/capital-weathergang/wp/2014/08/27/
V. A. Rakov, “Lightning phenomenology and parameters important for lightning protection,” IX International Symposium on Lightning Protection, 26th – 30th November, Brazil, 2007.
“Lightning Safety,” US Department of Commerce National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and Office of the National Weather Service [Online], 1995. Available: http://www.srh.noaa.gov/jetstream/lightning/lightning_safety.html
“Lightning strike on iconic buildings in Chicago,” [Online], 2014. Available: http://dailyawesomeness.com/wpcontent/uploads/2014/07/lightningst orm.jpg.
F. MacDonald, “Oklahoma had the longest lightning strike on record: 10 times longer than we thought possible,” Science Alert [Online], Sep. 2016. Available: https://www.sciencealert.com/oklahoma-had-thelongest-lightning-strike-on-record
S. K. Car and Y. A. Liou, “Analysis of cloud-to-ground lightning and its relation with surface pollutants over Taipei, Taiwan,” Annales Geophysicae, vol. 32, pp. 1085–1092, Sep. 2014.
B. Antonescue and S. Stefan, “The urban effect on the cloud-to-ground lightning activity in the Bucharest area,,Romania,” Romanian Reports in Physics, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 535–542, 2011.
O. Pinto Jr and I. R. C. A Pinto, “About sensitivity of cloud-to-ground lightning activity to surface air temperature changes at different time scales in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil,” 20th International Lightning Detection Conference and 2nd International Lightning Meteorology Conference, Tucson U. S. A, Apr. 2008.
W. R. G. Farias, O. Pinto Jr., K. P. Naccarato, and I. R. C. A. Pinto, “Anomalous lightning activity over the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo due to urban effects,” Journal of Atmospheric Research vol. 91, pp. 485–490, 2009.
C. Price, “Thunderstorm, lightning and climate change,” 29th Internation Conference on Lightning Protection Conference, Uppsala, Sweden, Jun. 2008.
K. P Naccarato, D. R. Campos, and V. H. P. Meireles, “Lightning urban effect over major large cities in Brazil,” XV International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity, , Norman, Oklahoma, U.S.A, 15-20 Jun. 2014.
Y. Zhang, M. Ma, L. Weitao, and S. Tao, “Review on Climate Characteristics of Lightning Activity.” Acta Meteor. Sinica, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 137-149, 2010.
Z. Dong, Z. Yijun, and C. Luwen, “ Climate Lightning Activity and its Correlations with Meteorological Parameters in South China,” XV International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity, pp. 1-14, Jun. 2014
J Fisher, P. R. P Hoole, K Pirapaharan, S Thirukumaran, S. R. H Hoole, “Cloud to ground and ground to cloud flashes in lightning protection: and future severe lightning and climate change,” International Conference on Lightning Protection (ICLP), pp. 440- 445, IEEE Xplore Digital Library, 2014.
Protection Against Lightning – Part 1 General Principles, IEC International Standard, IEC 62305-1, Edition 2, 2010-12
Aircraft Lightning Environment and Related Test Waveforms, SAE ARP 5412 Committee Report, Apr. 2012.
V. A. Rakov, “Lightning Discharge and Fundamentals of Lightning Protection,” Journal of Lightning Research, vol. 4, (Suppl. 1: M2), pp. 3-11, Jun. 2012.
F. A. Fisher, J. A. Plumer, and R. A. Perala, “Lightning protection of Aircraft”, Lightning Technologies Inc., second edition, 1999.
R. Hess, “The electromagnetic environment,” in The Avionics Handbook, CRC Press LLG, 2001.
C. Kendall, E. Black, W. E. Larsen, N. O. Rasch, “Aircraft generated electromagnetic interference on future electronic systems,” Federal Aviation Administration Report No: DOT/FAA/CT-83/49, Dec. 1983.
M. A. Uman and R. A. Rakov, “The interaction of lightning with aerospace vehicles,” Progress in Aerospace Sciences, vol. 39, Elsevier Sciences Ltd, pp. 61-81, 2003.
N. I. Petrov, A. Haddad, H. Petrova, H. Griffiths, and R. T. Walters, “Study of Effects of Lightning Strikes on Aircraft,” Recent Advances in Aircraft Technology, Dr. Ramesh Agrawal (Ed.), ISBN978-953-51- 0150-5, InTech, pp. 523-544, Feb. 2012.
V. Severson, P. Murray, and J. Heeter, “Establishing cause and effect relationships between lightning flash data and airplane lightning strike damage,” 23rd International Lightning Detection Conference and 5th International Lightning Meteorology Conference, Tucson U. S. A., Mar. 2014.
D. Morgan, C. J. Hardwick, S. J. Haigh, A. J. and Meakins, “The Interaction of Lightning with Aircraft and the Challenges of Lightning Testing,” Aerospace Lab Journal 5, ALO5-11, pp. 1-10, 2012.
P. L. Rustan, “Lightning threat to aerospace vehicles,” J. Aircraft, vol. 23, pp. 62-67, 1986.
C. Fuller, “Going the Distance: Aircraft and lightning, How far is far enough?” IEEE Int Symp on Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC), pp. 588-593, 2016.
P. Laroche, P. Blanchart, A. Delannoy, F. Isaac, “Experimental studies of lightning strikes to aircraft,” Journal of Aerospace Lab 5, AL05-06, pp 1-13, Dec 2012.
G. Sweers, B. Birch, and J. Gokcen,”Lightning strikes: Protection, inspection, and repair.” Boeing AERO Magazine, Issue 48_Quater 04, pp 19-28, 2012.
P. R. P Hoole, J. Fisher, K. Pirapaharan, Al K. H. Othman, N. Julai,C.V. Aravind, K.S. Senthilkumar and S.R.H. Hoole, “Determining Safe Electrical Zones for Placing Aircraft Navigation, “ Measurement and Microelectronic Systems in Static Thunderstorm Environment,” International Journal of Control Theory and Applications, vol. 10, no. 16, 2017.
Industry Document to Support Aircraft Lightning Protection Certifications, U.S. Department of Transport Federal Aviation Administration Advisory Circular, AC No: 20-155A, 2013.
X. Teng, G. Liu, Z. Yu, X. Zhuang, and Y. Zhao, “Research on Initial Lightning Attachment Zone for Aircraft,” 3rd International Conference on Electric and Electronics, Hong Kong, Dec. 2013.
J. Fisher, P.R.P. Hoole, K. Pirapaharan, and S. R. H. Hoole, Applying a 3D Dipole Model for Lightning Electrodynamics of Low-Flying Aircraft. IETE Journal of Research, vol. 61, no.2, pp. 91-98, 2015.
“Titanium Uses”, Asian Metal [Online], Jun. 2017. Available: http://metalpedia.asianmetal.com/metal/titanium/application.shtml
L. V. Dung and K. Petcharaks, “Lightning protection systems design for substations by using masts and Matlab,” World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology International Journal of Mathematical, Computational, Physical, Electrical and Computer Engineering, vol. 4, no. 5, 2010.
F. Heidler, Z. Flisowski, W. Zischank, Ch. Bouquegneau, and C. Mazzetti, “Parameters of Lightning Current given in IEC 62305- Background, Experience and Outlook, 29th International Conference on Lightning Protection, Uppsala, Sweden, 23-26 Jun. 2008.
W. R. Gamerota, J. O. Elisme ,́ٴM. A. Uman, and V, A. Rakov, “Current waveforms for lightning simulations.” IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, vol. 54, no: 4, pp. 880-888, Aug. 2012.
P. Yadee and S. Premrudeepreechacharn, “Analysis of tower footing resistance effected back flashover across insulator in a transmission system,” International Conference on Power Systems Transients, Lyon, France on Jun. 4-7, 2007.
M H. Rawoot and M. F. A. R. Satarkar, “Some critical study of lightning impulses on electrical transmission line system,” International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology, Special Issue 3, pp. 217-221, April 2014.
XL Catlin, GAPS Guidelines, A Publication of Global Asset Protection Services LLC, A Publication of Global Asset Protection Services LLC, 2015 [Online], Available: http://xlcatlin.com/~/media/gaps/522____0.pdf.
EHV AC Substations, Layout, Equipment, Bus arrangements, [Online], Available: http://srldc.in/var/NRC/PSTI%20course/vol2_PS%20Operation/2EH V%20susbattions_psjg_apr11.doc
G. S. Shah and N.R. Bhasme, “Design of earthing system for HV/EHV AC substation: A case study of 400 kV substation at Aurangabad, India,” International Journal of Advances in Engineering and Technology, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 2597-2605, Jan. 2014.
N. Z. Yahaya and M. A. Daud, “Study of lightning safety distance using rolling sphere method,” Journal of Scientific Research on Energy and Power Engineering, vol. 5, pp. 266-273, 2013.
IEEE Guide to Direct Lightning Stroke Shielding of Substations, IEEE Std. 998-1996, 1996.
Lightning Protection Standards, BS EN/IEC 62305 Standard for Lightning Protection, 2006. [Online] Available: http://wwwpublic.tnb.com/eel/docs/furse/BS_EN_IEC_62305_standard_series. pdf.
How to Protection Your House and Its Content From Lightning, IEEE Guide for Surge Protection of Equipment Connected to AC Power Communication Circuits. [Online], Available: http://lightningsafety.com/nlsi_lhm/IEEE_Guide.pdf.
DEHN + SÖHNE, “Lightning Protection Guide,” 3rd updated edition Dec. 2014.
How to Cite
TRANSFER OF COPYRIGHT AGREEMENT
The manuscript is herewith submitted for publication in the Journal of Telecommunication, Electronic and Computer Engineering (JTEC). It has not been published before, and it is not under consideration for publication in any other journals. It contains no material that is scandalous, obscene, libelous or otherwise contrary to law. When the manuscript is accepted for publication, I, as the author, hereby agree to transfer to JTEC, all rights including those pertaining to electronic forms and transmissions, under existing copyright laws, except for the following, which the author(s) specifically retain(s):
- All proprietary right other than copyright, such as patent rights
- The right to make further copies of all or part of the published article for my use in classroom teaching
- The right to reuse all or part of this manuscript in a compilation of my own works or in a textbook of which I am the author; and
- The right to make copies of the published work for internal distribution within the institution that employs me
I agree that copies made under these circumstances will continue to carry the copyright notice that appears in the original published work. I agree to inform my co-authors, if any, of the above terms. I certify that I have obtained written permission for the use of text, tables, and/or illustrations from any copyrighted source(s), and I agree to supply such written permission(s) to JTEC upon request.