Intelligent Control Algorithm for Energy Management System of Light Electric Vehicles


  • FA Azidin
  • Z A.Ghani
  • MA Hannan
  • M. Azah


fuel cell, battery, super capacitors, control algorithm, energy management system


A state-based logic control algorithm was developed to coordinate a multi-source energy management system (EMS) for light electric vehicles (LEVs), such as scooters. This work was undertaken in view of the increasing importance of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) in many rapidly developing Asian countries. The multiple energy sources in this investigation were batteries, fuel cells (FC) and super-capacitors (SCs). Since each resource has its own advantages and disadvantages, a combination of the resources provides a more reliable and powerful energy model for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV).An algorithm was developed to manage the switching of the multiple energy resources efficiently. The performance of the proposed model in terms of vehicle acceleration and load power was measured against the ECE-47 test drive cycle. The sources of energy changeover were examined at 50% of thebattery state of charge (SOC) or under heavy load conditions. The results showed a close match of the model to the test cycle under both normal and heavy load cycle conditions. The feasibility of the proposed intelligent controlling algorithm for the EMSof light electric vehicles was thus verified. This study could contribute huge benefit to the manufacturers and research institutions involved in lightelectric vehicle.


How to Cite

Azidin, F., A.Ghani, Z., Hannan, M., & Azah, M. (2015). Intelligent Control Algorithm for Energy Management System of Light Electric Vehicles. Journal of Telecommunication, Electronic and Computer Engineering (JTEC), 6(2), 37–43. Retrieved from