# Analysis on Euler Angles Rotation of a Rigid Body in Three-Axis Attitude Based on RazakSAT Data

## Authors

• M.Z. Hasan Faculty of Engineering Technology, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Kampus UniCITI Alam Sungai Chuchuh, 02100 Padang Besar, Perlis, Malaysia.
• A.H. Abdullah School of Mechatronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Kampus Pauh Putra, 02600 Arau, Perlis, Malaysia.
• A. Ahmed Institute of Mathematical Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Kampus Pauh Putra, 02600 Arau, Perlis, Malaysia.
• N.H. Hamzah School of Civil Engineering, Kampus Kejuruteraan, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang, Malaysia.
• M.A.M. Said
• S. Yaacob Malaysia Spanish Institute, Universiti Kuala Lumpur, Kulim Hi-Tech Park, 09000 Kulim, Kedah, Malaysia.
• M. Fadly Detrac Sdn Bhd, Hicom Glenmarie Industrial Park, 40150 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.

## Keywords:

Attitude Determination System, Euler Angles Rotation, Quaternion Parameters, RazakSAT Satellite,

## Abstract

Satellite attitude estimation uses different attitude representation either Euler angles, direction cosine matrix, Gibbs vector or quaternion parameters as their kinematic model. The three-axis attitude parameter using quaternion parameter is mostly used to represents the attitude of satellites. As well as in RazakSAT satellite mission, the attitude data is represented by quaternions parameters. However, the quaternions parameters do not have a physical interpretation for the attitude of the satellite. Therefore, quaternion parameters of the satellite are converted to Euler angles rotation for the physical interpretation of its orientation. This paper present and analyse the satellite three-axis Euler angles rotation for its attitude using average rotation, maximum/minimum error and standard deviation. The result shows that the quaternions parameters are successfully represented in Euler angels. The error measurement or noise exists on roll, pitch and yaw of Euler angles. For verification of the Euler angles error, the angular velocity from satellite gyroscopes is used as references. Residual analysis at low frequency is 0.00515 [degree/ second] which considered as Euler angles measurement error or noise.

## References

A. S. Arshad, S. O. S. Anisah, and N. H. Mohd, RazakSAT Concept, Design and Development. Astronautic Technology (M) Sdn. Bhd., Kuala Lumpur, 2004.

MZ. Hasan, S. Yaacob, A. Ahmed, N. H. Hamzah, SB. Yaakob, MH. Idris and MAM. Said. Analysis on Attitude Position Earth Centered Inertial (ECI) and Velocity based on RazakSAT data. Journal Teknologi, 2015, 76(12), pp.97-103.

MZ. Hasan, S. Yaacob, A. Ahmed, SB. Yaakob, MH. Idris, MAM. Said, Analysis the Condition of RazakSAT based on Attitude Sensor of Atttitude Determination System Data.Applied Mechanics and Materials.2015, 785, pp. 739-743.

NH. Hamzah, S. Yaacob, H. Muthusamy, N. Hamzah, MZ. Hasan, “Unmodeled disturbances torque exerted on RazakSAT’s attitude during sun tracking mode,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1775, 2016, pp. 030081- 1–030081-9.

MZ. Hasan, A. Ahmed, AH. Abdullah, S. Yaacob, MAM. Said, N. Hamzah, AK. Junoh, SB. Yaakob, NH. Hamzah, “A study on correlation between ECI and satellite’s velocity based on RazakSAT data,”AIP Conf. Proc. 1775, 2016, pp. 030050-1–030050-6.

M. Fadly, O. Sidek, MAM. Said, Development of Atitude Determination for Student Pico-Satellite INNOSAT, Regional Conference on Mechanical and Aerospace Technology, February 9- 10, Bali, Indonesia, 2010, pp.518-1-518-9.

J. R. Wertz, Spacecraft Attitude Determination and Control Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 1978, pp. 1-21.

J. R. Wertz and W. J. Larson, Space Mission Analysis and Design. Microcosm Press and Kluwer Academic Publishers, California, 20046, pp. 345-380.

N. H. Hamzah, S. Yaacob, H. Muthusamy, T. V. Cherd, and MZ. Hasan, Nonlinear Observers via Extended Kalman Filter Algorithm for Euler Angles Attitude Estimation without Attitude Sensor Measurements. Journal Teknologi, 2015, 77(28), pp.43–47.

K. Koprubasi, M.-W.L.Theint. “Attitude and Angular Rate Estimation Using the Sliding Mode Observer with Additive Quaternion Correction”. Proceeding of the American Control Conference, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA, 2006, pp. 3302-3307.

R. Clements, P. Tavares, P. Lima. “Small Satellite Attitude Control Based on Kalman Filter”, Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica Lisboa. Proceedings of the 15th IEE International Symposium on Intelligent Control, 2000, pp. 79-84.

Adam Ain Bin Mohd Poin Keui. Development and Implementation of Embedded Attitude Determination System using Extended Kalman Filter Based on ARM7TDMI Platform. Master Thesis, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM). 2013, pp. 5-8.

MZ. Hasan, A. Ahmed, AH. Abdullah, S. Yaacob, SB. Yaakob, M H. Idris, MAMd. Said,” Review on Attitude Estimation Algorithm of Attitude Determination System,” ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, vol.11, no.7, pp. 4455-4460, April 2016.

Muhammad Fadli, “Attitude Determination and Control For Stabilization and Pointing Accuracy For 3U Class Nano-Satellite”, PhD Thesis, USM, 2016.

2018-05-30

## How to Cite

Hasan, M., Abdullah, A., Ahmed, A., Hamzah, N., Said, M., Yaacob, S., & Fadly, M. (2018). Analysis on Euler Angles Rotation of a Rigid Body in Three-Axis Attitude Based on RazakSAT Data. Journal of Telecommunication, Electronic and Computer Engineering (JTEC), 10(1-14), 73–76. Retrieved from https://jtec.utem.edu.my/jtec/article/view/4150

Articles