A Robust, 3-Element Triangular, Reflector-less, Single Beam Adaptive Array Antenna for Cognitive Radio Network: Inter-element Distance Dependent Beam


  • K Pirapaharan Department of Electrical & Communications Engineering, Papua New Guinea University of Technology, PNG.
  • H Kunsei Department of Electrical & Communications Engineering, Papua New Guinea University of Technology, PNG.
  • K.S. Senthilkumar Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Papua New Guinea University of Technology, PNG.
  • Paul R. P. Hoole Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Sarawak, Malaysia.
  • Samuel R. H. Hoole Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, USA.


Smart Antenna, Adaptive Array, Cognitive Radio, Single-Beam Array


Cognitive Radio is a promising technique that allows the use of underused television spectrum to reach to remote, rural communication network users. In order to develop non-interfering, broad band communication link scattered users, there is a need for robust, narrow beam antennas with minimum of side lobes. In this paper we report the flexibility of a three element array antenna that produces single main beam with minimum negligibly small side lobes, without the use of any additional structures such as reflectors. The paper explores the geometrical arrangement and inter-element distances of such an antenna where single, rotatable beams are electronically produced towards pre-determined user clusters. The paper demonstrates the single beam, as opposed to multiple beams, that the antenna generates in different directions in the 360o of the horizontal plane, as well as the flexibility in changing the antenna size (that is the inter element distance), to successfully achieve the single beam antenna without resorting to the conventional reflectors that are used to flip the mirror beam that appears in linear array antennas. The analytical solution, as opposed to iteratively calculated solution using such techniques as least mean square (LMS) method, makes the digital beam steered reported herein light on memory and fast in solution to give the desired beam.


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How to Cite

Pirapaharan, K., Kunsei, H., Senthilkumar, K., Hoole, P. R. P., & Hoole, S. R. H. (2016). A Robust, 3-Element Triangular, Reflector-less, Single Beam Adaptive Array Antenna for Cognitive Radio Network: Inter-element Distance Dependent Beam. Journal of Telecommunication, Electronic and Computer Engineering (JTEC), 8(12), 79–82. Retrieved from https://jtec.utem.edu.my/jtec/article/view/1439