Prioritizing Causes of Procrastination among University Students: An Empirical Analysis
Keywords:Procrastination, Relative Importance Index, Academic performance,
AbstractProcrastination is a complex phenomenon universally manifested in both the general public and academic environment. University students are particularly highly susceptible to procrastinate owing to the vast amount of work, unstructured available time, and numerous distractions accessible to them. Procrastination is in fact a very intricate psychological behavior that can have numerous causes. This study investigates the causes of procrastination among university students using Relative Importance Index (RII) and ranks them based on the Overall Relative Importance Index (ORII). The contributing factors of procrastination are then analyzed and prioritized. A multistage probability sampling technique was used to select the sample size of students for each year of study. The findings revealed that having too many works at one time is the number one factor and time management largely influences the procrastination habit of the students.
WJ Knaus. Procrastination, Blame, and Change, Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 15 (2000) 153–166.
L Solomon, E Rothblum. Academic procrastination: Frequency and cognitive behavioral correlates, Journal of Counseling Psychology, 31 (4) (1984) 503 - 509.
JR Ferrari, J O’Callaghan, I Newbegin. Prevalence of procrastination in the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia: Arousal and avoidable delays among adults, North American Journal of Psychology, 7(2005) 1 - 6.
P Steel. The nature of procrastination: a meta-analytic and theoretical review of quintessential self-regulatory failure, Psychological Bulletin, 133(2007) 65 - 94.
E F Irin. Academic Procrastination among Undergraduates Attending School of Physical Education and Sports: Role of General Procrastination, Academic Motivation and Academic Self-Efficacy. Educational Research and Reviews, 6 (5) (2011) 447-455.
C Cavusoglu, H Karatas. Academic Procrastination of Undergraduates: Self-determination Theory and Academic Motivation, Anthropologist, 20(3) (2015) 735-743.
J Harriott, J Ferrari. Prevalence of procrastination among samples of adults, Psychological Reports, 78 (1996) 611–616.
A Blunt, TA Pychyl. Volitional Action and Inaction in the Lives of Undergraduate Students: State Orientation, Procrastination and Prone To Boredom, Personality Individual Difference, 24 (1998) 837- 846.
ES Cerino. Relationships between academic motivation, self-efficacy, and academic procrastination, Psi Chi Journal of Psychological Research, 19(4) (2014) 156-163.
I Katz, K Eilot, N Nevo. “I’ll do it later”: Type of motivation, self-efficacy and homework procrastination, Motivation and Emotion, 38(1) (2014) 111-119.
D Tice, R Baumeister. Longitudinal study of procrastination, performance, stress, and health: the costs and benefits of dawdling, Psychological Science, 8 (1997) 454- 458.
W Van-Eerde. A meta-analytically derived nomologicalnetwork of procrastination, Personality and Individual Differences, 35 (2003) 1401 - 1418.
J Ferrari. Procrastination As Self-Regulation Failure Of Performance: Effects Of Cognitive Load, Self-Awareness And Time Limits On ‘Working Best Under Pressure’, European Journal Of Personality, 15 (2001) 391- 406.
SM Moon, AJ Illingworth. Exploring the dynamic nature of procrastination: a latent growth curve analysis of academic procrastination, Personality and Individual Differences, 38 (2005) 297 - 309.
MK Akinsola, A Tella. Correlates of academic procrastination and mathematics achievement of university undergraduate students, Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 3 (4) (2007) 363 - 370.
J Wesley. Effects of ability, high school achievement and procrastinator behavior on college performance, Educational and Psychological Measurement, 54 (1994) 404 - 408.
BL Beck, SR Koons, DL Milgrim. Correlates and consequences of behavioral procrastination: the effects of academic procrastination, self-consciousness, self-esteem, and self-handicapping, Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 15 (2000) 3 - 13.
AJ Onwuegbuzie. Academic procrastinators and perfectionistic tendencies among graduate students, Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 15 (5) (2000) 103 - 110.
M Abu Ghazal. Academic procrastination: its prevalence and causes from the perspective of university students, Jordanian Journal of Educational Sciences, Amman, 8 (2) (2012) 131 - 150.
BU Ozer, JR Ferrari. Gender orientation and academic procrastination: Exploring Turkish high school students, Individual Differences Research, 9 (1) (2011) 33 - 40.
CA Wolters. Understanding procrastination from a self-regulated learning perspective, Journal of Educational Psychology, 95 (2003) 179 - 187.
AJ Howell, DC Watson. Procrastination: Associations with achievement goal orientation and learning strategies, Personality and Individual Differences, 43 (2007) 167 - 178.
G Schraw, T Wadkins, L Olafson. Doing the things we do: a grounded theory of academic procrastination, Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(1) (2007) 12–25.
B Tuckman, D Abry, D Smith. Learning and motivation strategies: Your guide to success Upper Saddle River, N. J: Prentice – Hall, (2002).
B, Popoola. A study of the Relationship between Procrastinatory Behavior and Academic Performance of Undergraduate Students in a Nigerian University, African symposium: An Online Journal of Educational Research Network, 16 (2005) 161 - 165.
AHC Chu, JN Choi. Rethinking procrastination: Positive effects of “active” procrastination behavior on attitudes and performance, Journal of Social Psychology, 145 (2005) 245 - 264.
E Lee The relationship of motivation and flow experience to academicprocrastination in university students, The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 166 (2005) 5 - 14.
C Goode. Effects Of Academic Procrastination: Students Procrastination Affects More Than Grades, (2008), Retrieved from website http://homeworktree.com/media/news-releases/academic-procrastination, accessed on Jan 13, 2016.
D Ariely, K Wertenbroch. Procrastination, Deadlines, and Performance: Self-Control by Recommitment, Psychological Science, 13(3) (2002) 219 - 224.
BA Fritzsche, BR Young, KC Hickson. Individual differences in academic procrastination tendency and writing success, Personality and Individual Differences, 35 (2003) 1549 - 1557.
M Balkis, E Duru. Prevalence of academic procrastination behavior among pre- service teachers, and its relationship with demographics and individual preferences, Journal of Theory and Practice in Education, 5 (2009) 18 - 32.
S Rust. Advantages and limitation of alternatives sampling methods for the national children’s study. Statistical Methods in Medical Research, 5 (2004) 283-310.
T Snijders. Sampling, Multilevel Modelling of Health Statistics, New York: Wiley. (2001) 159 - 174.
C Lay. At last, my research article on procrastination, Journal of Research in Personality, 20 (1986) 474-495.
A Jarkas, C Bitar. “Factors affecting construction labor productivity in Kuwait”, ASCE Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 138 (7) (2012) 811-20.
How to Cite
TRANSFER OF COPYRIGHT AGREEMENT
The manuscript is herewith submitted for publication in the Journal of Telecommunication, Electronic and Computer Engineering (JTEC). It has not been published before, and it is not under consideration for publication in any other journals. It contains no material that is scandalous, obscene, libelous or otherwise contrary to law. When the manuscript is accepted for publication, I, as the author, hereby agree to transfer to JTEC, all rights including those pertaining to electronic forms and transmissions, under existing copyright laws, except for the following, which the author(s) specifically retain(s):
- All proprietary right other than copyright, such as patent rights
- The right to make further copies of all or part of the published article for my use in classroom teaching
- The right to reuse all or part of this manuscript in a compilation of my own works or in a textbook of which I am the author; and
- The right to make copies of the published work for internal distribution within the institution that employs me
I agree that copies made under these circumstances will continue to carry the copyright notice that appears in the original published work. I agree to inform my co-authors, if any, of the above terms. I certify that I have obtained written permission for the use of text, tables, and/or illustrations from any copyrighted source(s), and I agree to supply such written permission(s) to JTEC upon request.