G.1070 Model Extension at Full HD Resolution for VP9/HEVC Codec


  • Debajyoti Pal IP Communications Laboratory, School of Information Technology , King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, Toongkru, Bangkok, Thailand
  • Vajirasak Vanijja IP Communications Laboratory, School of Information Technology , King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, Toongkru, Bangkok, Thailand


H.265, MOS, Objective Test, QoE, Subjective Test, VP9,


HD video streaming, which is gaining in popularity these days requires a large amount of bandwidth. This has resulted in the emergence of newer codecs like H.265/High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) and VP9 from Google. These codecs are supposed to provide an excellent video compression to quality ratio. ITU-T describes a standardised parametric model called the G.1070 Opinion Model, which estimates the Quality of Experience (QoE) of any multimedia content. The model estimates three parameters viz. the speech quality alone (Sq), the video quality alone (Vq) and the overall multimedia quality (M q) of the input video. However, it needs to be trained separately for different codecs, video formats and certain other parameters, which can be obtained by carrying out suitable subjective tests. Our contribution in this paper is threefold. First, we carry out a subjective test according to the Recommendation P.910 to estimate the video quality for VP9 codec. Second, for the first time we use the results obtained from the subjective test to find out a set of coefficients that enables us to extend the G.1070 model for VP9 codec at Full HD resolution. Third, we provide an answer as to which is the better codec from H.265/HEVC and VP9 by evaluating their performance against scores obtained from different standard objective tests like the G.1070 model, Video Quality Metric (VQM) model and the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) model.

Author Biographies

Debajyoti Pal, IP Communications Laboratory, School of Information Technology , King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, Toongkru, Bangkok, Thailand

PhD Student, Information Technology

Vajirasak Vanijja, IP Communications Laboratory, School of Information Technology , King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, Toongkru, Bangkok, Thailand

Assistant Professor, School of Information Technology


Cisco Global Mobile Data Traffic Forecast Update Report, 2014-2019, Cisco white paper (2016)

Ooyala, Q1 2013 Video Index- TV is no longer a single screen in your living room, 2013

Sullivan G.J, Ohm J.R, Han W.J and Wiegand T, “Overview of the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) Standard,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol.22, no.12, pp. 1649-1668, December 2012, doi: 10.1109/TCSVT.2012.2221191

D. Mukherjee et al., “The latest open-source video codec VP9- An Overview and Preliminary Results,” Picture Coding Symposium (PCS), pp.390-393, San Jose, CA, 2013 doi: 10.1109/PCS.2013.6737765

B. Bross et al., “High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) Text Specification Draft 10,” Document JCTVC-L1003, JCT-VC, Geneva, Switzerland, January 2013

Liang Hu, Yan Li, Tengfei Li, Hongtu Li and Jianfeng Chu, “The Efficiency Improved Scheme For Secure Access Control of Digital Video Distribution,” Multimedia Tools and Applications, vol.75, no.20, pp.12645-12662, October 2016, doi: 10.1007/s11042-015-2450-7

Kjell Brunnstrom et al., “Qualinet White Paper on Definitions of Quality of Experience,” Output from the 5th Qualinet Meeting, 2013

Menkovski V, Exarchakos G and Liotta A, “The Value of Relative Quality in Video Delivery,” Journal of Mobile Multimedia, vol.7, no.3, pp. 151-162, September 2011

V. Menkovski and A. Liotta, “Intelligent Control for Adaptive Video Streaming,” 2013 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE), pp.127-128, Las Vegas, 2013 doi: 10.1109/ICCE.2013.6486825

Song W, Tjondronegoro D and Himawan I, “Acceptability-based QoE Management for User-centric Mobile Video Delivery: A Field Study Evaluation,” 22nd ACM International Conference on Multimedia (MM’14), pp.267-276, New York, 2014 doi: 10.1145/2647868.2654923

Agboma F and Liotta A, “User Centric Assessment of Mobile Contents Delivery’” 4th International Conference on Advances in Mobile Computing and Multimedia, pp.104-107, Indonesia, 4 December, 2014

Subjective Video Quality Assessment Methods for Multimedia Applications, ITU-T P.910, April 2008

Opinion Model for Video-telephony Applications, ITU-T G.1070, July 2012

Sullivan G, Topiwala PN and Luthra A, “The H.264/AVC Advanced Video Coding Standard: Overview and Introduction to the fidelity Range Extensions,” 49th Annual Meeting on Optical Science and Technology,pp.454-474, no.0001

Ohm JR, Sullivan GJ, Schwarz H, Tan TK and Weigand T, “Comparison of the Coding Efficiency of Video Coding Standards- Including High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC),” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol.22, no.12, pp.1669-1684, December 2012 doi: 10.1109/TCSVT.2012.2221192

Grois D, Marpe D, Muyaloff A, Itzhaky B and Hadar O, “Performance Comparison of H.265/MPEG-HEVC, VP9 and H.264/MPEG-AVC Encoders,” Picture Coding Symposium (PCS), pp.394-397, San Jose, 2013 doi: 10.1109/PCS.2013.6737766

Mukherjee D et al., “A Technical Overview of VP9- The Latest Open-source Video Codec,” SMPTE Motion Imaging Journal, vol.124, no.1, pp.44-54, January 2015 doi: 10.5594/ji8499

Kufa J and Kratochvil T, “Comparison of H.265 and VP9 Coding Efficiency for Full HDTV and Ultra-HDTV Applications,” 25th International Conference on Radioelektronika, pp.168-171, 2015 doi: 10.1109/RADIOELEK.2015.7128999

Uhrina M, Bienik J and Vaculik M, “Procedure for Mapping of Objective Video Quality Metrics to Subjective MOS Scale of VP9 Compression Standard for Full HD Resolution,” International Conference on Information and Digital Technologies (IDT), pp.288-294, Rzeszow 2016 doi: 10.1109/DT.2016.7557188

Rerabek M et al. , “Quality Evaluation of HEVC and VP9 Video Compression in Real-Time Applications,” 7th International Workshop on Quality of Multimedia Experience (QoMEX), pp.1-6, Nestoras, 2015 doi: 10.1109/QoMEX.2015.7148088

Baroncini V, Ohm J.R and Sullivan G.J, “Report on Preliminary Subjective Testing of HEVC Compression Capability,” JCT-VC of ITU-T SG16 WP3 and ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG12, 2012

Bae SH, Kim J, Cho S and Choi J.S, “Assessments of Subjective Video Quality on HEVC-Encoded 4K-UHD Video for Beyond-HDTV Broadcasting Services,” IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting, vol.59, no.2, pp.209-222, June 2013 doi: 10.1109/TBC.2013.2247171

Garcia R and Kalva H, “Subjective Evaluation of HEVC and AVC/H.264 in Mobile Environments,” IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, vol.60, no.1, pp.116-123, February 2014 doi: 10.1109/TCE.2014.6780933

Methodology for The Subjective Assessment of the Quality of Television Pictures, ITU-R BT.500-13, January 2012

Pinson M and Wolf S, “Comparing Subjective Video Quality Testing Methodologies,” Proceedings of SPIE, pp.573-582, 2003

Joscowicz J, Sotelo R and Ardao J.C.L, “Towards a General Parametric Model For Perceptual Video Quality Estimation,” IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting, vol.59, no.4, pp.569-579, December 2013 doi: 10.1109/TBC.2013.227795

Quan Huynh-Thu and Ghanbari M, “The Accuracy of PSNR in Predicting Video Quality for Different Video Scenes and Frame Rates,” Telecommunication Systems Journal, vol.49, no.1, pp.35-48, January 2012 doi: 10.1007/s11235-010-9351-x

Song W and Tjondronegoro D.W, “Acceptability-Based QoE Models for Mobile Video,” IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, vol.16, no.3, pp.738-750, April 2014 doi: 10.1109/TMM.2014.2298217

Catelliar A and Pinson M, “Characterization of the HEVC Coding Efficiency Advance Using 20 Scenes, ITU-T Rec. P.913 Compliant Subjective Methods, VQM and PSNR,” IEEE International Symposium on Multimedia (ISM), pp.282-288, Miami, 2015 doi: 10.1109/ISM.2015.38

Zeng Kai et al., “From H.264 to HEVC: Coding Gain Predicted by Objective Video Quality Assessment Methods,” International Workshop on Video Processing and Quality Metrics for Consumer Electronics, February 2013

Whore A and Ziou D, “Image Quality Metrics: PSNR vs. SSIM,” 20th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR), pp.2366-2369, 2010 doi: 10.1109/ICPR.2010.579

Anegekuh L and Lingfen S, “Encoding and Video Content Based HEVC Video Quality Prediction,” Multimedia Tools and Applications, vol.74, no.11, pp.3715-3758, June 2015 doi: 10.1007/s11042-013-1795-z

Nightingale J and Wang Q, “Deriving Video Content Type from HEVC Bit stream Semantics,” International Conference on Real Time Image and Video Processing, May 2014 doi: 10.1117/12.2051757

The E-Model, A Computational Model for Use in Transmission Planning, ITU-T G.107, March 2005

Belmudez B and Moller S, “Extension of the G.1070 Video Quality Function for the MPEG2 Video Codec,” 2nd International Workshop on Quality of Multimedia Experience (QoMEX), pp.7-10, Trondheim , 2010, doi 10.1109/QOMEX.2010.5518225

Yamagishi K and Hayashi T, “QRP08-1: Opinion Model for Estimating Video Quality of Videophone Services,” IEEE Globecom, pp.1-5, San Francisco, 2006 doi 10.1109/GLOCOM.2006.458

Bilel Jamaossi, “Verification of Video Quality Estimation Model for Videophone Services,” NTT, Japan, Rep.COM12-C34-E, Jan.2008

Pal D, Triyason T and Vanijja V, “Extending the ITU-T G.1070 Opinion Model to Support Current Generation H.265/HEVC Video Codec,” International Conference on Computational Science and Its Applications (ICCSA), pp.106-116, Beijing, July, 2016 doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-42108-7_8

VQEG Standard Database, maintained at http://www.its.bldrdoc.gov/vqeg/downloads.aspx

Joscowiz J. and Ardao J.C.L, “Enhancements to the Opinion-Model for Video Telephony Applications,” 5th International Latin American Networking Conference (LANC), pp.87-94, New York, 2009 doi: 10.1145/1636682.1636697

Song W, Tjondronegoro D and Docherty M, “Exploration and Optimization of User Experience in Viewing Videos on a Mobile Phone’” International Journal on Software Engineering Knowledge, vol.20, no.8, pp.1045-1075, 2010

Hanhart P. (2013). VQMT: Video Quality Measurement Tool [Online]. Available: http://www.mmspg.epfl.ch/vqmt

Simone D, Goldmann F, Lee L and Ebrahimi T, “Towards High Efficiency Video Coding: Subjective Evaluation of Potential Coding Technologies,” Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation, vol.22, no.8, pp.734-748, 2011




How to Cite

Pal, D., & Vanijja, V. (2016). G.1070 Model Extension at Full HD Resolution for VP9/HEVC Codec. Journal of Telecommunication, Electronic and Computer Engineering (JTEC), 8(9), 139–147. Retrieved from https://jtec.utem.edu.my/jtec/article/view/1107