Bio-inspired Probabilistic Opportunistic Routing for Vehicular Delay-Tolerant Networks Using A Hybrid Swarm Approach
Keywords:VDTN routing, ProPHET, SCF, ACO
Vehicular Delay Tolerant Network (VDTN) routing has been improved using probabilistic routing to improve the coverage of intermittent vehicular networks. VDTNs are characterized by large transmission ranges of vehicles, rapid vehicular speeds, and restricted mobility movements, particularly in urban areas. As a result, the probabilistic Sore-Carry-and-Forward (SCF) relay vehicle selection can be inaccurate when considering remote vehicles, leading to high overheads. To address this issue, a new bio-inspired VDTN routing protocol is proposed to better estimate the SCF capabilities of remote vehicles so that the duplicated generated bundles’ copies are reduced without altering the bundles’ delivery ratio and average delivery delay. This solution sequentially employs the Ant Colony Optimizer (ACO) and Glowworm Swarm Optimization (GSO) to adaptively control the replication of bundle copies at each bundle forwarding stage based on predefined probabilistic forwarding parameters. Simulation results from a sparse urban mobility scenario show reduced bundle replication rates compared to several probabilistic VDTN routing protocols.
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