Performance Analysis of Smart Farming System Based on IoT


  • Thinesh Soundaraja Centre for Telecommunication Research and Innovation, Fakulti Kejuruteraan Elektronik & Kejuruteraan Komputer, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Malaysia
  • Maisarah Abu Centre for Telecommunication Research and Innovation, Fakulti Kejuruteraan Elektronik & Kejuruteraan Komputer, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Malaysia
  • Siti Adlina Md Ali Centre for Telecommunication Research and Innovation, Fakulti Kejuruteraan Elektronik & Kejuruteraan Komputer, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Malaysia


Farming System, MIT App Inventor, Soil Moisture, Temperature, Thing Speak Platform


Over the past few years, technology and agriculture have come together in an unprecedented way as advances in the internet of things (IoT). The agricultural sector plays an important role in contributing to the economics of a country. The IoT-based agriculture leads to lucrative yields and there are several types of platforms used by farmers in increasing agricultural yields. Although there are many platforms related to modern agriculture, a less specific platform is used to study the types of crops suitable for planting based on the type of soil. Thus, this project system has introduced an IoTbased smart farming system based on the MIT App Inventor. The objective of this project is to develop a smart farming system that can help to monitor and analyze data of temperature (29 ℃ - 35 ℃), humidity (70% - 100%), soil
moisture (50% - 100%), and pH (5.5 - 7.0) of crops which been stored in ThingSpeak platform application. In addition to
monitoring, the actuator system also can be controlled by application developed in MIT 2 App Inventor. The system was
tested on okra plants and their vegetative traits were measured for 30 days. The result revealed good performance which
proves that the developed system is suitable for smart farming system.


M, Ilyas, “The handbook of ad hoc wireless networks,” CRC Press, 2017.

A. N. Uwaechia, and N. M. Mahyuddin, “A comprehensive survey on millimeter wave communications for fifth-generation wireless networks: Feasibility and challenges,” vol. 8, pp. 62367-62414, 2020.

J. Wu, and P. Fan, “A survey on high mobility wireless communications: Challenges, opportunities and solutions,”. vol. 4, pp. 450-476, 2016.

S. Ghalib, A. Kasem, and A. Ali, “Analytical study of wireless ad-hoc networks: types, characteristics, differences, applications, protocols,” In International Conference on Futuristic Trends in Networks and

Computing Technologies, pp. 22-40, 2019.

B. Yousefi, F. Ghassemi, and R. Khosravi, “Modeling and efficient verification of wireless ad hoc networks,” Formal Aspects of Computing, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 1051-1086, 2017.

S. Sharmila, and T. Shanthi, “A survey on wireless ad hoc network: Issues and implementation,” In 2016 International Conference on merging Trends in Engineering, Technology and Science (ICETETS), pp. 1-6, 2016.

J. R. Diaz, J. Lloret, J. M. Jimenez, S. Sendra, and J. J. Rodrigues, “Fault tolerant mechanism for multimedia flows in wireless ad hoc networks based on fast switching paths,” Mathematical Problems in Engineering, vol. 2014, pp. 1–12, 2014.

R. Basomingera and Y.-J. Choi, “Learning from routing information for detecting routing misbehavior in ad hoc networks,” Sensors, vol. 20, no. 21, pp. 6275, 2020.

A. R. Ragab, “A new classification for ad-hoc network,” International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies (iJIM), vol. 14, no. 14, p. 214, 2020.

M. Sharma, M. Singh, K. Walia, and K. Kaur, “A comprehensive study of performance parameters for MANET, VANET and FANET,” 2019 IEEE 10th Annual Information Technology, Electronics and Mobile Communication Conference (IEMCON), pp. 0643-0646, 2019.

P. Chitra, and T. Ranganayaki, “A Study on Manet: Applications, Challenges and Issues,” International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT), vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 1-4, 2020.

N. A. M. Saudi, M. A. Arshad, A. G. Buja, A. F. A. Fadzil, and R. M. Saidi, “Mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) routing protocols: A performance assessment,” In Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Computing, Mathematics and Statistics (iCMS2017) pp. 53-59, 2019.

S. Kumar, M. Goyal, D. Goyal, and R. C. Poonia, “Routing protocols and security issues in MANET,” 2017 International Conference on Infocom Technologies and Unmanned Systems (Trends and Future Directions) (ICTUS), pp. 818-824, 2017.

A. K. S. Ali, and U. Kulkarni, “Characteristics, applications and challenges in mobile Ad-Hoc networks (MANET): Overview,” Wireless Networks, vol. 3, no. 12, pp. 6-12, 2015.

T. W. Ching, A. H. Aman, W. M. Azamuddin, and Z. S. Attarbashi, “Performance evaluation of AODV routing protocol in MANET using NS-3 simulator,” 2021 3rd International Cyber Resilience Conference (CRC), 2021.

R. K. Upadhyay, S. Kumar and J. Wasim, “Performance of MANET Routing Protocols with Varying Mobility Speed and Group Mobility Model,” Vidyabharati International Interdisciplinary Research Journal, pp. 28-32, 2021.

N. Raza, A. Amin, H. Ur, and M. Tariq, “Effect of node density over the performance of DSR, TORA, and OLSR routing protocols of MANET,” International Journal of Computer Applications, vol. 177, no. 39, pp. 34–41, 2020.

K. Divya and B. Srinivasan, “Impact of Node Mobility on MANET Routing Protocols Models,” International Journal of Research in Engineering and Science (IJRES), vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 24-33, 2021.

T. Hussain, “An investigation of the performance optimized Link State Routing Protocol on the basis of mobility models,” Journal of Mechanics of Continua and Mathematical Sciences, vol. 15, no. 9, 2020.

S. Taterh, Y. Meena, and G. Paliwal, “Performance analysis of ad hoc on-demand distance vector routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks,” Asset Analytics, pp. 235–245, 2019.

I. Ahmad, F. Masood, and A. W. Khan, “Performance assessment of QoS using AODV, TORA and ZRP routing protocol in MANET,” Mehran University Research Journal of Engineering and Technology, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 744–750, 2020.

A. Kurniawan, P. Kristalina, and M. Z. Hadi, “Performance analysis of routing protocols AODV, OLSR and DSDV on MANET using NS3,” 2020 International Electronics Symposium (IES), pp. 199-206, 2020.

M. A. Fadhil, N. N. Kamiss, and A. D. Jasim, “Performance Evaluation of Reactive and Proactive Routing Protocols based on Mobility and Offered Load,” International Journal of Computer Science & Engineering Technology (IJCSET), vol. 9, pp. 34-38, 2019.

A. A. Hashim, M. M. Farhan, and S. Alshybani, “Performance evaluation of OLSR and AODV routing protocols over mobile ad-hoc networks,” 2019 First International Conference of Intelligent Computing and Engineering (ICOICE), pp. 1-8, 2019.

M. Fotros, J. Rezazadeh, and O. Ameri Sianaki, “A survey on VANETs routing protocols for IoT Intelligent Transportation Systems,” Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, pp. 1097–1115, 2020.

C. Ksouri, I. Jemili, M. Mosbah, and A. Belghith, “VANETs routing protocols survey: Classifications, Optimization methods and new trends,” Communications in Computer and Information Science, pp. 3– 22, 2020.

S. Baras, I. Saeed, H. A. Tabaza, and M. Elhadef, “Vanets-basedIntelligent Transportation Systems: An overview,” Advances in Computer Science and Ubiquitous Computing, pp. 265–273, 2017.

M. S. Sheikh and J. Liang, “A comprehensive survey on VANET security services in Traffic Management System,” Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, vol. 2019, pp. 1–23, 2019.

K. Raheja, M. Mahajan, and A. Goel, “Implementation of GPSR protocol with various mobility models in VANET scenario,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series, vol. 1950, no. 1, p. 012080, 2021.

I. Aljabry and G. Al-Suhail, “A simulation of AODV and GPSR routing protocols in VANET based on multimetrices,” Iraqi Journal for Electrical and Electronic Engineering, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 66–72, 2021.

S. Kumar, A. Kumar, V. Tyagi, and A. Kumar, “Impact of network density on AODV protocol in VANET,” 2020 IEEE 5th International Conference on Computing Communication and Automation (ICCCA), 2020.

S. Smiri, A. Boushaba, R. Ben Abbou, and A. Zahi, “Performance analysis of routing protocols with roadside unit infrastructure in a vehicular ad hoc network,” International Journal of Computer Networks & Communications, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 19–39, 2020.

S. Pande, R. Sadakale and N. V. K. Ramesh, “Performance Analysis of AODV Routing Protocol in VANET Using NS-2 and SUMO,” WCNC- 2021: Workshop on Computer Networks & Communications, 2021.

C. M. Raut and S. R. Devane, “Performance evaluation of vehicular ad hoc networks in case of road side unit failure,” Cognitive Informatics and Soft Computing, pp. 295–305, 2020.

D. Soumaya, S. Dardouri, and B. Ridha, “Performance evaluation of routing protocols for vehicular ad-hoc networks using NS2/Sumo,” Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, pp. 352–365, 2020.

M. S. Hossain, J. Sen, M. A. Hossain, M. M. Rahman, and M. I. Abdullah, “Performance Evaluation of Ad Hoc Network over Moving Vehicles in a City,” Global Journal of Computer Science and Technology, vol. 20, no.2, pp. 21-25, 2020.

C. Tolba, “Investigating fading impact on AODV, OLSR and DSDV protocols in NS3,” In Third International Conference on Computing and Wireless Communication Systems, ICCWCS 2019. European Alliance for Innovation (EAI), 2019.

Z. Naim and M. I. Hossain, “Performance analysis of AODV, DSDV and DSR in Vehicular Adhoc Network (VANET),” 2019 International Conference on Robotics, Electrical and Signal Processing Techniques (ICREST), pp. 17-22, 2019.

A. Mukherjee, V. Keshary, K. Pandya, N. Dey, and S. C. Satapathy, “Flying ad hoc networks: A comprehensive survey,” Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, pp. 569–580, 2018.

A. Chriki, H. Touati, H. Snoussi, and F. Kamoun, “FANET: Communication, Mobility Models and security issues,” Computer Networks, vol. 163, p. 106877, 2019.

A. Bujari, C. E. Palazzi, and D. Ronzani, “FANET application scenarios and Mobility Models,” Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Micro Aerial Vehicle Networks, Systems, and Applications - DroNet'17, pp. 43-46, 2017.

M. Itallo B. Azevedo, C. Coutinho, E. Martins Toda, T. Costa Carvalho, and J. Jailton, “Wireless communications challenges to flying ad hoc networks (FANET),” Mobile Computing, 2020.

A. Guillen-Perez and M.-D. Cano, “Flying ad hoc networks: A new domain for network communications,” Sensors, vol. 18, no. 10, p. 3571, 2018.

X. Tan, Z. Zuo, S. Su, X. Guo, X. Sun, and D. Jiang, “Performance analysis of routing protocols for UAV Communication Networks,” IEEE Access, pp. 1–1, 2020.

D. He, W. Sun, and L. Shi, “The novel mobility models based on Spiral Line for aerial backbone networks,” IEEE Access, vol. 8, pp. 11297– 11314, 2020.

P. Kaur, A. Singh, and S. S. Gill, “RGIM: An integrated approach to improve QoS in AODV, DSR and DSDV routing protocols for FANETS using the chain mobility model,” The Computer Journal, vol. 63, no. 10, pp. 1500–1512, 2020.

N. Lin, F. Gao, L. Zhao, A. Al-Dubai, and Z. Tan, “A 3D smooth random walk mobility model for FANETs,” 2019 IEEE 21st

International Conference on High Performance Computing and Communications; IEEE 17th International Conference on Smart City; IEEE 5th International Conference on Data Science and Systems (HPCC/SmartCity/DSS), 2019.

M. A. Hassan, S. I. Ullah, I. U. Khan, S. B. Hussain Shah, A. Salam, and A. W. Ullah Khan, “Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Routing Formation using fisheye state routing for flying ad-hoc networks,” The 4th International Conference on Future Networks and Distributed Systems (ICFNDS), 2020.

P. Kaur, A. Singh, and S. S. Gill, “RGIM: An integrated approach to improve QoS in AODV, DSR and DSDV routing protocols for FANETS using the chain mobility model,” The Computer Journal, vol. 63, no.10, pp. 1500–1512, 2020.

C. Anitha, and K. G. Asvini, “Performance of Routing Protocols and File Transfer in FANET Using Shortest Path Algorithm,” Science, Technology and Development, vol. ix, no. ii, pp. 77-87.

Q. Liu, H. Wang, Y. Sun, and T. Han, “A Multi-UAVs communication network simulation platform using OPNET modeler,” ICC 2020 - 2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), pp. 1-6, 2020.

H. Yang and Z. Liu, “An optimisation routing protocol for FANETs,” EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, vol. 2019, no. 1, pp. 1-8, 2019.

A. V. Leonov and V. O. Ryabchevsky, “Performance evaluation of AODV and OLSR routing protocols in relaying networks in organization in Mini-UAVs based FANET: Simulation-based study,”2018 Dynamics of Systems, Mechanisms and Machines (Dynamics), pp. 1-6, 2018.

H. M. Taher, “Sea Ad hoc Network (SANET) challenges and development,” International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 6257-6261, 2018.

E. Chauhan, M. Sirswal, D. Gupta, and A. Khanna, “A critical review: SANET and other variants of ad hoc networks,” Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, pp. 1093–1114, 2020.

Z. xu, X. Xiaoyang, S. Liwei, Z. Jinyu, Z. Wu, and D. Wenjing, “Performance analysis of sea unmanned ship routing protocol based on Ad Hoc Network,” 2019 International Conference on Information Technology and Computer Application (ITCA), pp. 221-224, 2019.

S. Zhang, X. Xiang, and S. Yang, “Communication Network and QoS Evaluation for Formation Control of Unmanned Surface Vehicles,”Brodogradnja: Teorija i praksa brodogradnje i pomorske tehnike, vol. 71, no. 4, pp. 19-37, 2020.

R. Mohsin and J. Woods, “Performance evaluation of MANET routing protocols in a maritime environment,” 2014 6th Computer Science and Electronic Engineering Conference (CEEC), 2014.

S. Peng, Y. Wang, H. Xiao, and B. Lin, “Implementation of an improved AODV routing protocol for maritime ad-hoc networks,” 2020 13th International Congress on Image and Signal Processing, BioMedical Engineering and Informatics (CISP-BMEI), pp. 7-11, 2020.

Z. Li, B. Yin, M. X. Gao, and X. Zhao, “Improved GPSR routing protocol based on weight function in shipborne ad hoc networks,” IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 768, p. 052134, 2020.

P. Gopalakrishnan, S. Gupta, R. Krishnan, D. Patel, J. P. Dhivvya, S. Anand, and D. Raj, “Routing protocol analysis for heterogeneous nodes in a dynamic and sparse environment,” 2020 11th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT), 2020.

S. Ghoreyshi, A. Shahrabi, and T. Boutaleb, “A novel cooperative opportunistic routing scheme for Underwater Sensor Networks,” Sensors, vol. 16, no. 3, p. 297, 2016.

S. M. Ghoreyshi, A. Shahrabi, and T. Boutaleb, “A stateless opportunistic routing protocol for Underwater Sensor Networks,” Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, vol. 2018, pp. 1– 18, 2018.

M. Hoyhtya, “Connectivity manager: Ensuring robust connections for autonomous ships,” 2019 2nd International Conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems (ICoIAS), 2019.

Z. xu, X. Xiaoyang, S. Liwei, Z. Jinyu, Z. Wu, and D. Wenjing, “Performance analysis of sea unmanned ship routing protocol based on Ad Hoc Network,” 2019 International Conference on Information Technology and Computer Application (ITCA), 2019.

R. Al-Zaidi, J. Woods, M. Al-Khalidi, K. M. Ali Alheeti, and K. McDonald-Maier, “Next Generation Marine Data Networks in an IOT environment,” 2017 Second International Conference on Fog and Mobile Edge Computing (FMEC), pp. 50-55, 2017.

C. Yun, S.-G. Kim, A.-R. Cho, and Y.-K. Lim, “Sea-experiment test of a shipborne ad-hoc network (SANET) for maritime VHF Digital Data Communications,” The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 681–688, 2016.

R. J. Mohsin, J. Woods, and M. Q. Shawkat, “Density and mobility impact on MANET routing protocols in a maritime environment,” 2015 Science and Information Conference (SAI), pp. 1046-1051, 2015.




How to Cite

Soundaraja, T., Abu, M., & Md Ali, S. A. (2021). Performance Analysis of Smart Farming System Based on IoT. Journal of Telecommunication, Electronic and Computer Engineering (JTEC), 13(4), 19–25. Retrieved from