Cost Threshold Approach of Network Association in 5G Non-Standalone System


  • Helena Widiarti Prasetiya Mulya University


5G, non-standalone, mmWave, user association.


5G as the latest generation of wireless communication has been an interesting research topic, with a promise to provide a higher data rate and lower latency to user. 5G uses mmWave band to transmit and receive data. Thus, 5G transmission band resides in different band compared to LTE Macrocell. The mmWave has been utilized due to its ability to provide larger bandwidth to user. In spite of the merit, mmWave also brings challenges. The cell range of mmWave is smaller than previous 3G/4G macro cell. Furthermore, the mmWave channels may not reliable, thus it would be preferable to have microwave band as a carrier used to send important control signaling to user. In this case, it should be connected to two network, the main and the secondary network for a user to have a reliable connection. In 3GPP specification, this concept is known as dual connectivity. In this paper, a method based on threshold value for initiating dual connectivity to 5G BS, with LTE BS as the master node and 5G BS as a secondary node has been proposed. The method considered throughput requirement of user, distance to 5G BS and macrocell as criteria for the input parameters to make decision. The algorithm designed to be simple since it will run on the user terminal. Our analysis showed that the proposed method reflects MS distance to 5G AP and load of both LTE Macrocell and 5G AP, in term of cost calculation; thus, it can reduce unnecessary overhead, while at the same time provide user with a required throughput. 

Author Biography

Helena Widiarti, Prasetiya Mulya University

Helena Widiarti

Faculty Member of Computer Systems Engineering, STEM,

Prasetiya Mulya University

Research interests : communication system, resource allocation, wireless communication



J. Andrews, S. Buzzi, W. Choi, S. Hanly, A. Lozano, A. Soong, and J.Zhang, “What will 5G be?” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 1065–1082, Jun. 2014

3GPP, “3rd Generation Partnership Project;Technical SpecificationGroup Radio Access Network; Study on New Radio (NR) access technology”, 3GPP spec Release 16, Jun. 2020

Zhao, H., Mayzus, R., Sun, S., Samimi, M., Schulz, J. K., Azar,Y.,Rappaport, T. S, ”28 GHz millimeter wave cellular communication measurements for reflection and penetration loss in and around buildings in New York city”, IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), 2013

J. Andrews, S. Singh, Q. Ye, X. Lin, and H. Dhillon, “An overview of load balancing in HetNets: Old myths and open problems,” IEEE Wireless Commun., vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 18–25, Apr. 2014

H. Shokri-Ghadikolaei, Y. Xu, L. Gkatzikis, and C. Fischione, “User association and the alignment-throughput tradeoff in millimeter wave networks,” International Forum on Research and Technologies for Society and Industry Leveraging, Turin, Italy, Sept. 2015, pp. 100–105.

H. Zhang, S. Huang, C. Jiang, K. Long, V. C. M. Leung and H. V. Poor, ”Energy Efficient User Association and Power Allocation in Millimeter-Wave-Based Ultra Dense Networks With Energy Harvesting Base Stations,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 35, no. 9, pp. 1936-1947, Sept. 2017.

G. Athanasiou, P. C. Weeraddana, C. Fischione and L. Tassiulas, “Optimizing Client Association for Load Balancing and Fairness in Millimeter-Wave Wireless Networks,” IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 836-850, June 2015.

S. Singh and J. Andrews, “Joint resource partitioning and offloading in heterogeneous cellular networks,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Communication, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 888–901, Feb. 2014.

W. Bao and B. Liang, “Structured spectrum allocation and user association in heterogeneous cellular networks,” Proc. 2014 IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 1069–1077, Apr. 2014.

Y. Lin, W. Bao, W. Yu, and B. Liang, “Optimizing user association and spectrum allocation in hetnets: A utility perspective,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas in Communication, 2015.

3GPP, “3rd Generation Partnership Project;Technical Specification Group Radio Access Network;Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA) and Evolved Universal Terrestrial Rado Access Network (E-UTRAN);Overall description;Stage 2”, 3GPP spec Release 15, Jan. 2018.

3GPP, “5G: Study on channel model for frequencies from 0.5 to 100 GHz”, 3GPP TR 38.901 Release 14, May 2017.

Joan Olmos, Serra Pag e`s, Albert Garcia-Lozano, Mario Boque´, Silvia Pe´rez D´ıaz de Cerio, David, “Simulation of LTE IR H-ARQ at System Level Using MIESM Error Prediction7”, COST IC1004 TD(11)02072, Lisbon, Portugal, 19-21 October, 2011.




How to Cite

Widiarti, H. (2021). Cost Threshold Approach of Network Association in 5G Non-Standalone System. Journal of Telecommunication, Electronic and Computer Engineering (JTEC), 13(3), 1–5. Retrieved from