Front-End Design for Non-Invasive Electrical Resistance Tomography for Liquid Column
Keywords:Non-Invasive, ERT, High Frequency, LiquidSolid,
AbstractThis paper explains the front-end design for noninvasive electrical resistance tomography. The electrical resistance tomography system presented in this paper uses highfrequency potential. In this design, the phase-shift demodulation (PSD) approach was eliminated and replaced by a peak detector circuit. The switching between transmitter/receiver and the transmitting channel was controlled by an analogue switch, MAX319 and demultiplexer, DG406, respectively. A microcontroller was applied to the data acquisition which eliminates the needs of a data acquisition system. Sensor readings of each receiver from each transmitter groups were tested experimentally, compared and analysed with simulation results. These experimental readings were compared with the sensors reading simulated from COMSOL Multiphysics software. As a result, the current values between 0-1mA from experiments was similar with the simulation results for all groups of transmitters. Thus, it can be concluded that the frontend design can be applied for the non-invasive ERT when high frequency is considered.
Z. Cao, L. Xu, C. Xu, and H. Wang. “Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) by using An ECT Sensor”. In IEEE International Conference on Imaging Systems and Techniques. pp. 63–66, 2010.
B. L. Wang, Z. Y. Huang, H. F. Ji, and H. Q. Li. “Towards Capacitively Coupled Electrical Resistance Tomography”. In 6th World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography. pp. 1574–1577, 2010.
B. Wang, Y. Hu, H. Ji, Z. Huang, and H. Li. “A Novel Electrical Resistance Tomography System Based on C4D Technique”. In IEEE International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference. pp. 1929–1932, 1932.
Y. Li and M. Soleimani “Imaging Conductive Materials with High Frequency Electrical Capacitance Tomography”. Measurement. 46(9). pp. 3355–3361, 2013.
B. Wang, Y. Hu, H. Ji, Z. Huang, and H. Li. “A Novel Electrical Resistance Tomography System Based on C4D Technique Technique”. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement. 62(5). pp. 1017–1024, 2013.
B. Wang, W. Zhang, Z. Huang, H. Ji, and H. Li, “Modeling and Optimal Design of Sensor for Capacitively Coupled Electrical Resistance Tomography System”. Flow Measurement and Instrumentation. 31. pp. 3–9, 2013.
B. Wang, W. Tan, Z. Huang, H. Ji, and H. Li. “Image Reconstruction Algorithm for Capacitively Coupled Electrical Resistance Tomography”, Flow Measurement and Instrumentation. 40. pp. 216– 222, 2014
B. Wang, Z. Gui, W. Tan, Z. Huang, H. Ji, and H. Li, “A new dualmodality ECT/ERT technique based on C4D principle”. In IEEE International Conference on Instrumentation and Measurement Technology. pp. 2061–2065, 2015.
X. Ren and S. Liu. “Experimental study of phase sensitive detection technique in ect system”. In International Conference on Machine Learning and Cybernetics.121–125, 2014
B. Wang, Y. Hu, H. Ji, Z. Huang, and H. Li., “A Novel Electrical Resistance Tomography System Based on C4D Technique”. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement. 62(5). pp. 1017– 1024, 2013.
D. Chen, W. Yang, S. Member, and M. Pan. ,” Design of Impedance Measuring Circuits Based on Phase-Sensitive Demodulation Technique”, IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement. 60 (4). pp. 1276–1282, 2011.
W. Yang. “Teaching phase-sensitive demodulation for signal conditioning to undergraduate students”. American Journal of Physics. 78( 9). pp. 909–915, 2010.
X. Zhang and H. Wang, “Digital phase-sensitive demodulation in electrical capacitance tomography system”. In World Congress on Intelligent Control and Automation. 2, pp. 6730–6733, 2008.
W. Q. Yang, “Advance in AC-based capacitance tomography system”. In World Congress in Industrial Process Tomography. pp. 557–564, 2011.
W. Q. Yang. “Hardware design of electrical capacitance tomography systems”. Measurement Science and Technology. 7. pp. 225–232, 1996.
S. Hosseini, D. Patel, F. Ein-Mozaffari, and M. Mehrvar. “Study of Solid–Liquid Mixing in Agitated Tanks through Electrical Resistance Tomography: Chemical Engineering Science. 65(4), pp. 1374–1384, 2010.
J. William H.Hayt and John A. Buck. Engineering Electromagnetics, 7th. Ed. Mc Graw Hill. New York. pp. 122., 2006.
C. Kuo-Sheng, D. Isaacson, J. C. Newell, and D. G. Gisser. “Electrode Models for Electric Current Computed”. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering. 36 (9). pp. 918–924, 1989.
F. T. Ulaby, E. Michielssen, and U. Ravaioli. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics, 6th Ed. Pearson. United State of America. pp. 196, 2010.
F. T. Ulaby, E. Michielssen, and U. Ravaioli. Displacement Current. In Fundamentals of applied electromagnetics, 6th Ed. Pearson. United State of America. pp. 299–300, 2010.
L. Riordan. 2010. An-1070 application note.
R. L. Boylestad and L. Nashelsky. Op-Amp Applications. In Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory. 9th. Ed. Pearson. United State of America. pp. 640, 2006.
K. S. Chan. “Real Time Image Reconstruction for Fan Beam Optical Tomography System”. Master Thesis. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Malaysia, 2002.
How to Cite
TRANSFER OF COPYRIGHT AGREEMENT
The manuscript is herewith submitted for publication in the Journal of Telecommunication, Electronic and Computer Engineering (JTEC). It has not been published before, and it is not under consideration for publication in any other journals. It contains no material that is scandalous, obscene, libelous or otherwise contrary to law. When the manuscript is accepted for publication, I, as the author, hereby agree to transfer to JTEC, all rights including those pertaining to electronic forms and transmissions, under existing copyright laws, except for the following, which the author(s) specifically retain(s):
- All proprietary right other than copyright, such as patent rights
- The right to make further copies of all or part of the published article for my use in classroom teaching
- The right to reuse all or part of this manuscript in a compilation of my own works or in a textbook of which I am the author; and
- The right to make copies of the published work for internal distribution within the institution that employs me
I agree that copies made under these circumstances will continue to carry the copyright notice that appears in the original published work. I agree to inform my co-authors, if any, of the above terms. I certify that I have obtained written permission for the use of text, tables, and/or illustrations from any copyrighted source(s), and I agree to supply such written permission(s) to JTEC upon request.