Harmonic Distortion and Voltage Imbalance Study of Photovoltaic Power Plant Connected to the Malaysian Grid


  • Ali Q. Al-Shetwi Sustainable Energy & Power Electronics Research (SuPER), Faculty of Electrical and Electronic Engineering University Malaysia Pahang (UMP), 26600 Pekan, Pahang, Malaysia
  • Muhamad Zahim Sujod Sustainable Energy & Power Electronics Research (SuPER), Faculty of Electrical and Electronic Engineering University Malaysia Pahang (UMP), 26600 Pekan, Pahang, Malaysia


Grid-connected PV System, Harmonics, Photovoltaic Power Plant, Power Quality, Voltage Imbalance,


This paper presents power quality analysis on the effects of large-scale photovoltaic power plant (PVPP) connected to the distribution system of Malaysian grid. For this purpose, the PVPP system with a capacity of 1.5 MW is connected to the medium voltage level of the distribution network through a single-stage voltage source inverter (VSI). Power quality issues at connection point such as current and voltage harmonics distortion and voltage imbalance have been studied based on the standard requirements especially Malaysian standards at different levels of solar irradiation. This analysis is very useful to help researchers and grid operators to study the effects of power quality problems concerning gridconnected PVPP. It can be clearly seen from the measured results that the harmonic distortion and voltage imbalance of the proposed PVPP can meet the Malaysian distribution grid code and national grid standard requirements.


M. Obi and R. Bass, "Trends and challenges of grid-connected photovoltaic systems–A review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 58, pp. 1082-1094, 2016.

A. Q. Al-Shetwi, M. Z. Sujod, and R. Noor Lina, "A Review of the Fault Ride Through Requirements in Different Grid Codes Concerning Penetration of PV System to the Electric Power Network," ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences vol.10, no.21, pp. 9906- 9912, 2015.

Global Status Report. "Renewables 2016 GlobalStatus Report," Available: http://www.ren21.net/status-of-renewables/global-statusreport/

M. Farhoodnea, A. Mohamed, H. Shareef, and H. Zayandehroodi, "Power quality analysis of grid-connected photovoltaic systems in distribution networks," Przeglad Elektrotechniczny (Electrical Review), vol. 2013, pp. 208-213, 2013.

S.-y. Lu, L. Wang, S.-c. Ke, C.-h. Chang, and Z.-h. Yang, "Analysis of measured power-quality results of a PV system connected to Peng-Hu Power System," in Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting, 2014 IEEE, 2014, pp. 1-7.

T. S. Basso and R. DeBlasio, "IEEE 1547 series of standards: interconnection issues," IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 19, pp. 1159-1162, 2004.

F. Cleveland, "IEC 61850-7-420 communications standard for distributed energy resources (DER)," in Power and Energy Society General Meeting-Conversion and Delivery of Electrical Energy in the 21st Century, 2008 IEEE, 2008, pp. 1-4.

A. Azit, S. Sulaiman, Z. Hussein, M. Balakhrisnan, A. Busrah, P. Devaraju, et al., "TNB technical guidebook on grid-interconnection of photovoltaic power generation system to LV and MV networks," ed: Tenaga Nasional Berhad, Malaysia, 2012.

A. Q. Al-Shetwi and M. Z. Sujod, "Modeling and dynamics study of large scale PV system connected Malaysian grid under different fault conditions," in 2016 International Conference on Advances in Electrical, Electronic and Systems Engineering (ICAEES), 2016, pp. 488-494.

A. F. Abdul Kadir, T. Khatib, and W. Elmenreich, "Integrating photovoltaic systems in power system: power quality impacts and optimal planning challenges," International Journal of Photoenergy, vol. 2014, 2014.

A. Q. Al-Shetwi and S. Muhamad Zahim, "Sizing and Design of PV Array for Photovoltaic Power Plant Connected Grid Inverter," The National Conference for Postgraduate Research (NCON-PGR) pp. 193-199, September 24-25, Pekan, Malaysia 2016.

K. W. Kow, Y. W. Wong, R. K. Rajkumar, and R. K. Rajkumar, "Power quality analysis for PV grid connected system using PSCAD/EMTDC," International Journal of Renewable Energy Research (IJRER), vol. 5, pp. 121-132, 2015.

J. Wong, Y. S. Lim, J. H. Tang, and E. Morris, "Grid-connected photovoltaic system in Malaysia: A review on voltage issues," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 29, pp. 535-545, 2014.

Y.-K. Lo, T.-P. Lee, and K.-H. Wu, "Grid-connected photovoltaic system with power factor correction," IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, pp. 2224-2227, 2008.

A. Kalbat, "PSCAD simulation of grid-tied photovoltaic systems and Total Harmonic Distortion analysis," in Electric Power and Energy Conversion Systems (EPECS), 2013 3rd International Conference on, 2013, pp. 1-6.

M. Ayub, C. K. Gan, and A. F. A. Kadir, "The impact of grid-connected PV systems on Harmonic Distortion," in Innovative Smart Grid Technologies-Asia (ISGT Asia), 2014 IEEE, 2014, pp. 669-674.

F. Shahnia, A. Ghosh, G. Ledwich, and F. Zare, "Voltage correction in low voltage distribution networks with rooftop PVs using custom power devices," in IECON 2011-37th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, 2011, pp. 991-996.

M. Farhoodnea, A. Mohamed, H. Shareef, and H. Zayandehroodi, "Power quality impact of grid-connected photovoltaic generation system in distribution networks," in Research and Development (SCOReD), 2012 IEEE Student Conference on, 2012, pp. 1-6.

A. Q. Al-Shetwi and M. Sujod, "Design and Economic Evaluation of Electrification of Small Villages in Rural Area in Yemen Using StandAlone PV System," International Journal of Renewable Energy Research (IJRER), vol. 6, pp. 1442-1451, 2016.

H. Wu and X. Tao, "Three phase photovoltaic grid-connected generation technology with MPPT function and voltage control," in 2009 International Conference on Power Electronics and Drive Systems (PEDS), 2009, pp. 1295-1300.

V. R. F. B. de Souza, M. Alves Filho, and K. C. de Oliveira, "Analysis of power quality for photovoltaic systems connected to the grid," in Harmonics and Quality of Power (ICHQP), 2016 17th International Conference on, 2016, pp. 226-230.

T. M. Blooming and D. J. Carnovale, "Application of IEEE Std 519- 1992 harmonic limits," in Pulp and Paper Industry Technical Conference, 2006. Conference Record of Annual, 2006, pp. 1-9.

Energy Commission Malaysia. "The Malaysian grid and distribution codes". Available: http://www.tnb.com.my/business/malaysian-gridcode.html

J. C. Smith, G. Hensley, and L. Ray, "IEEE Recommended Practice for Monitoring Electric Power Quality," IEEE Std, pp. 1159-1995, 1995.

F. Shahnia, R. Majumder, A. Ghosh, G. Ledwich, and F. Zare, "Voltage imbalance analysis in residential low voltage distribution networks with rooftop PVs," Electric Power Systems Research, vol. 81, pp. 1805- 1814, 2011.

S.A. Barge and S. jagtap, " Harmonic Analysis of Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation, " International Journal of Advanced Electrical and Electronics Engineering, vol. 2, pp. 13-16, 2013.

T.-H. Chen, C.-H. Yang, and N.-C. Yang, "Examination of the definitions of voltage unbalance," International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, vol. 49, pp. 380-385, 2013.

A. De Almeida, L. Moreira, and J. Delgado, "Power quality problems and new solutions," in International Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality, 2003.

P. Kanjiya, B. Singh, A. Chandra, and K. Al-Haddad, "“SRF Theory Revisited” to Control Self-Supported Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) for Unbalanced and Nonlinear Loads," IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 49, pp. 2330-2340, 2013.




How to Cite

Q. Al-Shetwi, A., & Sujod, M. Z. (2018). Harmonic Distortion and Voltage Imbalance Study of Photovoltaic Power Plant Connected to the Malaysian Grid. Journal of Telecommunication, Electronic and Computer Engineering (JTEC), 10(1-2), 1–6. Retrieved from https://jtec.utem.edu.my/jtec/article/view/3311