Evaluation of Signal Attenuation for Bluetooth, ZigBee and Sound in Foliage
Keywords:Signal Attenuation, Bluetooth, ZigBee, Sound,
AbstractRural environments have been struggling to get connected due to various reasons, one of them being the fact that the signal attenuation is too high in foliage, drastically affecting range and power consumption. This study evaluates the effect of foliage in the attenuation of 2.4 GHz signals, namely Bluetooth and ZigBee. An alternate candidate signal, sound is also analyzed in a similar environment. In order to further the experiment, a simulation model using Omnet++ was created and the alpha value, which marks the environmental constant was noted. We have concluded from the study that the signal attenuation for the 2.4 GHz signals are very high in foliage. The high frequency sound signals also suffered drastic signal loss in foliage, but the low frequencies penetrated quite well. Therefore, high frequency signals are poor candidate carrier signals for such environments.
Specification 802.15.4. 2005. IEEE Standards Association. [Online] Available at: http://standards.ieee.org/about/get/802/802.15.html.
Tjensvold, J. 2007. “Comparison of the IEEE 802.11, 802.15.1, 802.15.4 and 802.15.6 wireless standards.”, [Online] Available at: http://janmagnet.files.wordpress.com/2008/07/comparison-ieee-802-standards.pdf.
Specification of the Bluetooth System v1.0A. 1999. Bluetooth. [Online] Available at: https://www.bluetooth.org/enus/specification/adopted-specifications.
A. B. Flores, R. E. Guerra, E. W. Knightly, P. Ecclesine and S. Pandey, "IEEE 802.11af: a standard for TV white space spectrum sharing," in IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 51, no. 10, pp. 92-100, October 2013.
K. Mathew, M. Tabassum, “Analysis of Bluetooth and Zigbee Signal Penetration and Interference in Foliage.” In the proceedings of the International MultiConference of Engineers and Computer Scientists 2016 Vol II (IMECS 2016), March 16 - 18, 2016, Hong Kong.
N. L. Muda, K. Mathew, M. Tabassum, “Interference Effects on Short Range Technology Zigbee Performance”, in the proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Transformative Research in Science and Engineering, Business and Social Innovation (SDPS 2014), 15th – 19th June 2014, in Kuching, Malaysia.
S. Ahmed, M. Tabassum, K. Mathew, “Interference Effects on Short Range Technology BlueTooth Performance”, in the proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Transformative Research in Science and Engineering, Business and Social Innovation (SDPS 2014), 15th – 19th June 2014, in Kuching, Malaysia.
Specification 802.11. 2005. IEEE Standards Association. [Online] Available at: http://standards.ieee.org/about/get/802/802.11.html.
Core Version 4.0. 2010. Bluetooth 4.0 Specification. [online] Available at: https://www.bluetooth.org/en-us/specification/adoptedspecifications.
Atmel 2013, “Atmel AT02845: Coexistence between ZigBee and Other 2.4GHz Products”, September 2013, pp. 1-12.  OMNeT++ official website. Retrieved Nov 04, 2015, from https://omnetpp.org/
How to Cite
TRANSFER OF COPYRIGHT AGREEMENT
The manuscript is herewith submitted for publication in the Journal of Telecommunication, Electronic and Computer Engineering (JTEC). It has not been published before, and it is not under consideration for publication in any other journals. It contains no material that is scandalous, obscene, libelous or otherwise contrary to law. When the manuscript is accepted for publication, I, as the author, hereby agree to transfer to JTEC, all rights including those pertaining to electronic forms and transmissions, under existing copyright laws, except for the following, which the author(s) specifically retain(s):
- All proprietary right other than copyright, such as patent rights
- The right to make further copies of all or part of the published article for my use in classroom teaching
- The right to reuse all or part of this manuscript in a compilation of my own works or in a textbook of which I am the author; and
- The right to make copies of the published work for internal distribution within the institution that employs me
I agree that copies made under these circumstances will continue to carry the copyright notice that appears in the original published work. I agree to inform my co-authors, if any, of the above terms. I certify that I have obtained written permission for the use of text, tables, and/or illustrations from any copyrighted source(s), and I agree to supply such written permission(s) to JTEC upon request.