Preliminary Investigation: Teachers’ Perception on Computational Thinking Concepts


  • Ung L. Ling Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences, University of Technology MARA (UiTM), 88999 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
  • Tammie C. Saibin Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences, University of Technology MARA (UiTM), 88999 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
  • Jane Labadin Institute of Social Informatics and Technological Innovations (ISITI ), University of Sarawak Malaysia (UNIMAS), 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia.
  • Norazila Abdul Aziz Institute of Social Informatics and Technological Innovations (ISITI ), University of Sarawak Malaysia (UNIMAS), 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia.


Computational Thinking (CT), Primary School Teachers, Teaching and Learning (TL), Teachers’ Perception,


As Computational Thinking (CT) is to be integrated into Malaysian syllabus by the year of 2017, this study therefore is designed to explore Malaysian teachers’ perception on CT. A survey method is employed; questions were constructed based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to acquire teachers’ perception on CT. 159 teachers from all over Malaysia completed the survey form. Spearman’s Rank Order correlation was implemented on the obtained data. This study managed to present teachers perception on CT via perceived usefulness of CT, perceived ease of CT integration into teaching and learning practices, teachers’ attitude towards CT and their intention to integrate CT into their classroom, their basic understanding on CT and their concern on CT integration. Our investigation shows teachers had a weak understanding of CT, which led to unnecessary concerns related to the CT integration. The results also show strong positive correlation on perceived ease of CT integration with behavioral intention and teachers’ attitude with behavioral intention.


J. a. S. Cuny, Larry and Wing, Jeannette M., "Demystifying computational thinking for non-computer scientists," unpublished.

J. M. Wing, Computational thinking. Magazine Communications of the ACM - Self managed systems CACM, 2006, pp. 33-35.

Y. B. Kafai and Q. Burke, "Computer programming goes back to school," Phi Delta Kappan, vol. 95, pp. 61-65, 2013.

G. Fessakis, E. Gouli, and E. Mavroudi, "Problem solving by 5-6 years old kindergarten children in a computer programming environment: A case study," Computers & Education, vol. 63, pp. 87-97, Apr 2013.

S. Einhorn, "MicroWorlds, Computational Thinking, and 21st Century Learning," 2012.

J. Richards, "Computational thinking: a discipline with uses outside the computer lab?," Computer Weekly, pp. 52, Jun. 2007.

S. Grover and R. Pea, "Computational Thinking in K–12 A Review of the State of the Field," Educational Researcher, vol. 42, pp. 38-43, 2013.

S. I. Ahamed, D. Brylow, R. Ge, P. Madiraju, S. J. Merrill, C. A. Struble, and J. P. Early, "Computational thinking for the sciences: a three day workshop for high school science teachers," in Proceedings of the 41st ACM technical symposium on Computer science education, 2010, pp. 42-46.

D. Barr, J. Harrison, and L. Conery, "Computational Thinking: A Digital Age Skill for Everyone," Learning & Leading with Technology, vol. 38, pp. 20-23, 2011.

R. Glaser, "Education and thinking: The role of knowledge," American psychologist, vol. 39, pp. 93, 1984.

D. Viadero, "Center to Support Instruction On 'Computational Thinking'," Education Week, vol. 26, pp. 10, Apr. 2007.

KPM, "Kurikulum Standard Sekolah Rendah KSSR," B. P. Kurikulum, Ed., 2016.

C. C. o. H. Capital, J. P. K. d. KPTM, and J. P. Teknikal, "Detailed Concept Paper: Study on the Development of ICT Curriculum Standards Coordination in Primary and Secondary Schools in Malaysia," ed: Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia, 2013.

K. P. Malaysia, "Pelan Pembangunan Pendidikan Malaysia 2013-2025," Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia, 2012.

A. Alibaygi, M. Karamidehkordi, and E. Karamidehkordi, "Effectiveness of rural ICT centers: A perspective from west of Iran," Procedia Computer Science, vol. 3, pp. 1184-1188, 2011.

I. A. Bajunid, "The transformation of Malaysian society through technological advantage: ICT and education in Malaysia," Journal of Southeast Asian Education, vol. 2, 2012.

F.-M. Chan, "ICT in Malaysian schools: Policy and strategies," in Workshop on the Promotion of ICT Education to Narrow the Digital Divide, Tokyo, 2002.

L. Joon Sun, H. P. Ginsburg, and M. D. Preston, "Video Interactions for Teaching and Learning (VITAL): Analyzing Videos Online to Learn to Teach Early Childhood Mathematics," Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, vol. 34, pp. 19-23, 2009.

S. Bennett, K. Maton, and L. Kervin, "The ‘digital natives’ debate: A critical review of the evidence," British journal of educational technology, vol. 39, pp. 775-786, 2008.

M. Guzdial, "Education Paving the way for computational thinking," Communications of the ACM, vol. 51, pp. 25-27, 2008.

M. Israel, J. N. Pearson, T. Tapia, Q. M. Wherfel, and G. Reese, "Supporting all learners in school-wide computational thinking: A cross-case qualitative analysis," Computers & Education, vol. 82, pp. 263-279, 2015.

M. U. Bers, L. Flannery, E. R. Kazakoff, and A. Sullivan, "Computational thinking and tinkering: Exploration of an early childhood robotics curriculum," Computers & Education, vol. 72, pp. 145-157, 2014.

R. Ramli, M. M. Yunus, and N. M. Ishak, "Robotic teaching for Malaysian gifted enrichment program," Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 15, pp. 2528-2532, 2011.

L. P. Flannery and M. U. Bers, "Let's Dance the Robot Hokey-Pokey!: Children's Programming Approaches and Achievement throughout Early Cognitive Development," Journal of Research on Technology in Education (International Society for Technology in Education), vol. 46, pp. 81-101, 2013.

A. R. Basawapatna, A. Repenning, K. H. Koh, and H. Nickerson, "The zones of proximal flow: guiding students through a space of computational thinking skills and challenges," in Proceedings of the ninth annual international ACM conference on International computing education research, 2013, pp. 67-74.

T. S. A. R. B. Mahat, "Surat Perkeliling Ikhtisas Bil. 10/2004: Pelaksanaan Program ICT Literacy (ICTL) di Sekolah Rendah," K. P. MALAYSIA, Ed., Pusat Pentadbiran Kerajaan, 2004, pp. 2.

K. P. MALAYSIA, "Modul Pengajaran TMK Tahun 3 SK," ed. Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia, 2011.

K. P. MALAYSIA, "Dokumen Standard Dunia Sains dan Teknologi Tahun 1," B. P. Kurikulum, Ed., ed. No.22, Jalan Sri Ehsan Satu, Taman Siri Ehsan, Kepong,52100 Kuala Lumpur.: Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum, Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia, 2011.

K. P. MALAYSIA, "Teknologi Maklumat dan Komunikasi Enam, " B. P. K. K. P. MALAYSIA, Ed., Pusat Pentadbiran Kerajaan Persekutuan, 2014.

BERNAMA, "Pemikiran komputasional, sains komputer akan diajar di sekolah tahun depan," in Utusan ONLINE, ed. Putrajaya: Utusan ONLINE, 2016.

Y. Y. Mun and Y. Hwang, "Predicting the use of web-based information systems: self-efficacy, enjoyment, learning goal orientation, and the technology acceptance model," International journal of human-computer studies, vol. 59, pp. 431-449, 2003.

V. Barr and C. Stephenson, "Bringing computational thinking to K-12: what is Involved and what is the role of the computer science education community?," ACM Inroads, vol. 2, pp. 48-54, 2011.

P. J. Denning, "The profession of IT: Beyond computational thinking," Commun. ACM, vol. 52, pp. 28-30, 2009.

A. Repenning, D. Webb, and A. Ioannidou, "Scalable game design and the development of a checklist for getting computational thinking into public schools," in Proceedings of the 41st ACM technical symposium on Computer science education, 2010, pp. 265-269.

J. J. Lu and G. H. Fletcher, "Thinking about computational thinking," in ACM SIGCSE Bulletin, 2009, pp. 260-264.

I. Lee, F. Martin, J. Denner, B. Coulter, W. Allan, J. Erickson, J. Malyn-Smith, and L. Werner, "Computational thinking for youth in practice," ACM Inroads, vol. 2, pp. 32-37, 2011.

A. Yadav, N. Zhou, C. Mayfield, S. Hambrusch, and J. T. Korb, "Introducing computational thinking in education courses," in Proceedings of the 42nd ACM technical symposium on Computer science education, 2011, pp. 465-470.

A. Yadav, C. Mayfield, N. E. Zhou, S. Hambrusch, and J. T. Korb, "Computational Thinking in Elementary and Secondary Teacher Education," Acm Transactions on Computing Education, vol. 14, pp. 1-16, Mar 2014.

J. Clark, M. Rogers, and C. Spradling, "Scratch the workshop and its implications on our world of computing," J. Comput. Sci. Coll., vol. 26, pp. 235-243, 2011.

M. P. Weller, E. Y.-L. Do, and M. D. Gross, "Escape machine: teaching computational thinking with a tangible state machine game," in Proceedings of the 7th international conference on Interaction design and children, 2008, pp. 282-289.

P. Sengupta, J. S. Kinnebrew, S. Basu, G. Biswas, and D. Clark, "Integrating computational thinking with K-12 science education using agent-based computation: A theoretical framework," Education and Information Technologies, vol. 18, pp. 351-380, Jun 2013 2013.

T. Lapidot and O. Hazzan, "Methods of teaching a computer science course for prospective teachers," ACM SIGCSE Bulletin, vol. 35, pp. 29-34, 2003.

L. Blum and T. J. Cortina, "CS4HS: an outreach program for high school CS teachers," in ACM SIGCSE Bulletin, 2007, pp. 19-23.

M. U. Bers, "The TangibleK Robotics Program: Applied Computational Thinking for Young Children," Early Childhood Research & Practice, vol. 12, no 2. 2010.

D. J. Portelance, "Code and Tell: An Exploration of Peer Interviews and Computational Thinking With ScratchJr in the Early Childhood Classroom," 1589497 M.A., Tufts University, Ann Arbor, 2015.

C. Kazimoglu, M. Kiernan, L. Bacon, and L. Mackinnon, "A Serious Game for Developing Computational Thinking and Learning Introductory Computer Programming," Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 47, pp. 1991-1999, 2012.

Q. Burke and Y. B. Kafai, "Programming & storytelling: opportunities for learning about coding & composition," in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Interaction Design and Children, 2010, pp. 348-351.

C. Dierbach, H. Hochheiser, S. Collins, G. Jerome, C. Ariza, T. Kelleher, W. Kleinsasser, J. Dehlinger, and S. Kaza, "A model for piloting pathways for computational thinking in a general education curriculum," presented at the Proceedings of the 42nd ACM technical symposium on Computer science education, Dallas, TX, USA, 2011.

V. Venkatesh, "Determinants of perceived ease of use: Integrating control, intrinsic motivation, and emotion into the technology acceptance model," Information systems research, vol. 11, pp. 342-365, 2000.

O. Olumide, "Technology Acceptance Model as a predictor of using information system’to acquire information literacy skills," 2016.

F. D. Davis, "User acceptance of information technology: system characteristics, user perceptions and behavioral impacts," International journal of man-machine studies, vol. 38, pp. 475-487, 1993.

Y. Gao, "Applying the technology acceptance model (TAM) to educational hypermedia: A field study," Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, vol. 14, p. 237, 2005.

T. Teo, "Modelling technology acceptance in education: A study of pre-service teachers," Computers & Education, vol. 52, pp. 302-312, 2009.

T. Teo, S. L. Wong, and C. S. Chai, "A Cross-cultural Examination of the Intention to Use Technology between Singaporean and Malaysian pre-service Teachers: An Application of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)," Educational Technology & Society, vol. 11, pp. 265-280, 2008.

Y.-S. Wang, Y.-M. Wang, H.-H. Lin, and T.-I. Tang, "Determinants of user acceptance of Internet banking: an empirical study," International journal of service industry management, vol. 14, pp. 501-519, 2003.

F. D. Davis, "Perceived Usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user accpatance of information technology," MIS Quarterly, vol. 13, pp. 319-340, 1989.

M. Bower and K. Falkner, "Computational Thinking, the Notional Machine, Pre-service Teachers, and Research Opportunities," in Proceedings of the 17th Australasian Computing Education Conference (ACE 2015), 2015, pp. 30.

H. Tinmaz and I. Yakin, "Tendencies of Engineering Students on Applying Technological Innovations," Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 176, pp. 621-626, 2015.

L. Mannila, M. Peltomäki, and T. Salakoski, "What about a simple language? Analyzing the difficulties in learning to program," Computer Science Education, vol. 16, pp. 211-227, 2006.

M. Tavakol and R. Dennick, "Making sense of Cronbach's alpha," International journal of medical education, vol. 2, pp. 53, 2011.

D. Li, "" It's Always More Difficult Than You Plan and Imagine": Teachers' Perceived Difficulties in Introducing the Communicative Approach in South Korea," Tesol Quarterly, pp. 677-703, 1998.




How to Cite

L. Ling, U., C. Saibin, T., Labadin, J., & Abdul Aziz, N. (2017). Preliminary Investigation: Teachers’ Perception on Computational Thinking Concepts. Journal of Telecommunication, Electronic and Computer Engineering (JTEC), 9(2-9), 23–29. Retrieved from