Brain Computer Interface Game Controlling Using Fast Fourier Transform and Learning Vector Quantization
Keywords:Brain Computer Interface, Arcade Game, EEG Signal, FFT, LVQ,
AbstractBrain Computer Interface (BCI) is a direct communication pathways which enables our brain to real time control a robotic movement or a game, which uses EEG signal to capture information of a human mind. In this research, we developed an arcade game that are controlled by BCI. Player sat and used their imagination to move the object in the game, in this case, they moved up or down. To achieve that, a wireless EEG device was used to record electrical activity in the player’s brain; each action was segmented by two seconds per frame, and then extracted using Fast Fourier Transform. Continuously, the output was passed to Learning Vector Quantization networks to classify two different motor imagery-related brain patterns (imagination of limb movements: upward and downward). Before the game was used, we conducted training for ten people (subjects) with four repetitions of each thinking type. Then, it was tested with 10 other subjects in which resulted in 70% accuracy. The game was tested and then compared between the movement of the mouse and BCI of the same subject and great results were found in both conditions.
M. H. Alomari, A. AbuBaker, A. Turani, A. M. Baniyounes and A. Manasreh, "EEG Mouse: A Machine Learning-Based Brain Computer Interface," International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications (IJACSA), vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 193-198, 2014.
R. Krepki , B. Blankertz and G. Curio , "The Berlin Brain-Computer Interface (BBCI) – towards a new communication channel for online control in gaming applications," Multimed Tools Appl, vol. 94, no. 3, pp. 1007-11042, 2007.
R. Leeb, M. Lancelle, D. W. Fellner and G. Pfurtscheller, "Thinking Penguin: Multimodal Brain–Computer Interface Control of a VR Game," IEEE Transactions on Computational Intelligence and AI in Games , vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 117 - 128, 2013.
J. W. Yoon, S. J. Roberts, M. Dyson and J. Q. Gan, "Adaptive classification for Brain Computer Interface systems using Sequential," in Neural Networks, 2009.
S. Ramesh, M. G. Krishna and M. Nakirekanti, "Brain Computer Inteface System for Mind Controlled Robot using Bluetooth," International Journal of Computer Applications, vol. 104, no. 15, pp. 20-23, 2014.
T. Shanmugapriya and S. Senthilkumar, "Robotics and the Brain Computer Interface System Critical Review for Manufacturing Application," International Journal of Innovative Research in Computer and Communication Engineering, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 2929-2935, 2014.
G. Varghese, J. James, L. Joseph, M. K. John, S. Mathew and S. Ramachandhran, "Human Robot Cooperative System Based on Noninvasive Brain Computer Interface," International Journal of Advanced Research in Electrical, Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 118-123, 2015.
J. S. Brumberg, A. N. Castanon, P. R. Kennedy and F. H. Guenther, "Brain Computer Interfaces for Speech Communication," Speech Communication, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 367 - 379, 2010.
Alshbatat and A. I. N., "EEG-Based Brain Computer Interface for Automating Home Appliances," Journal of Computers, vol. 9, no. 9, pp. 2159-2166, 2014.
H. N. Liu, Y. C. Chiang and C. H. Chu, "Recognizing the Degree of Human Attention Using EEG Signals from Mobile Sensors," Sensors, vol. 13, pp. 10273-10286, 2013.
E. C. Djamal, D. P. Pangestu and D. A. Dewi, "EEG-Based Recognition of Attention State Using Wavelet and Support Vector Machine," in Intelligent Technology and Its Applications (ISITIA), Lombok, 2016.
E. C. Djamal, Suprijanto and A. Arif, "Identification of Alertness State Through EEG Signal Using Wavelet Extraction and Neural Networks," in The 2014 International Conference on Computer, Control, Informatics and its Applications (IC3INA 2014), Bandung, 2014.
R.-N. Duan, X.-W. Wang and B.-L. Lu, "EEG Based Emotion Recognition in Listening Music by Using Support Vector Machine Dynamic System," ICONIP, Vols. Part IV, LNC 7666, pp. 468-475, 2012.
Y. Liu, O. Sourina and M. K. Nguyen, "Real-time EEG-based Human Emotion Recognition and Visualization," in 2010 International Conference on Cyberworlds (CW), Singapore, 2010.
M. Benedek, R. J. Schickel, E. Jauk, A. Fink and A. C. Neubauer, "Alpha power increases in right parietal cortex reflects focused internal attention," Elsevier Neuropsychologia, vol. 56, p. 393–400, 2014.
E. C. Djamal, Suprijanto and S. J. Setiadi, "Classification of Human Grasping Imagination Based on EEG Signal Using Autoregressive and Neural Networks," Jurnal Teknologi, vol. 78, no. 6-6, pp. 105-110, 2016.
E. C. Djamal and Suprijanto, "Recognition of Electroencephalogram Signal Pattern against Sound Stimulation using Spectral of Wavelet," TENCON, pp. 374-378, 2011.
D. Jiang and J. Yin , "Research of Auxiliary Game Platform Based on BCI Technology," in Information Processing, 2009. APCIP 2009. Asia-Pacific Conference on, Shenzhen, 2009.
L.-D. Liao, C.-Y. Chen, I.-J. Wang, S.-F. Chen, S.-Y. Li, B.-W. Chen, J.-Y. Chang and C.-T. Lin, "Gaming control using a wearable and wireless EEG-based brain-computer interface device with novel dry foam-based sensors," Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 1-11, 2012.
S. H. Fairclough, "BCI and Physiological Computing for Computer Games, Differences, Similarities & Intuitive Control," in Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Florence, 2008.
A. Khong, L. Jiangnan, K. P. Thomas and A. P. Vinod , "BCI based Multi-player 3-D Game Control using EEG for Enhancing Attention and Memory," in 2014 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, San Diego, 2014.
S. Shenjie, K. P. Thomas, S. K. G and A. Vinot, "Two Player EEGbased Neurofeedback Ball Game for Attention Enhancement," in 2014 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, San Diego, 2014.
K. Chu and C. Y. Wong, "Player’s Attention and Meditation Level of Input Devices on Mobile Gaming," in 3rd International Conference on User Science and Engineering (i-USEr), Shah Alam, 2014.
M. K. Hazrati and A. Erfanian, "An online EEG-based brain–computer interface for controlling hand grasp using an adaptive probabilistic neural network," Elsevier Medical Engineering & Physics, vol. 32, p. 730–739, 2010.
S. Thejaswini, S. Sumathi, M. C. Manasa, S. Raashi, T.R. Prasad, "Brain Computer Interface Systems to Assist Patients Using EEG Signals," International Journal of Innovative Research in Computer and Communication Engineering, vol. 3, no. 6, 2015.
N. Mammone and T. W. Kjr, "Learning Vector Quantization and Permutation Entropy to Analyse Epileptic Electroencephalography," in 2015 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN), Killarney, 2015.
How to Cite
TRANSFER OF COPYRIGHT AGREEMENT
The manuscript is herewith submitted for publication in the Journal of Telecommunication, Electronic and Computer Engineering (JTEC). It has not been published before, and it is not under consideration for publication in any other journals. It contains no material that is scandalous, obscene, libelous or otherwise contrary to law. When the manuscript is accepted for publication, I, as the author, hereby agree to transfer to JTEC, all rights including those pertaining to electronic forms and transmissions, under existing copyright laws, except for the following, which the author(s) specifically retain(s):
- All proprietary right other than copyright, such as patent rights
- The right to make further copies of all or part of the published article for my use in classroom teaching
- The right to reuse all or part of this manuscript in a compilation of my own works or in a textbook of which I am the author; and
- The right to make copies of the published work for internal distribution within the institution that employs me
I agree that copies made under these circumstances will continue to carry the copyright notice that appears in the original published work. I agree to inform my co-authors, if any, of the above terms. I certify that I have obtained written permission for the use of text, tables, and/or illustrations from any copyrighted source(s), and I agree to supply such written permission(s) to JTEC upon request.