RFID-Based Electronic Fare Toll Collection System for Multi-Lane Free Flow - A Case Study towards Malaysia Toll System Improvement
Keywords:Multi Lane Free Flow (MLFF), RFID-based Electronic Toll Collection (ETC) System, System Architecture,
AbstractRFID-based Electronic Toll Collection (ETC) system for Multi-lane free flow (MLFF) is a system that enables collection of toll payments electronically using RFID tags, allowing for nonstop toll collection and free-flow of high-speed travelling at toll highway with use of ordinary multilane road segments and aim to eliminate toll plazas and booths. The system allows vehicles with passive RFID tag to emit communication with front-end reading system to uniquely identifying and classifying each vehicle and transfer the toll transaction back to a centralized back office system for revenue collection by deducting from the account of vehicle owner. The RFID-based ETC systems have been implemented in developed and developing countries like Turkey, Taiwan and countries of South America. The review is focused on the RFID-based ETC system architecture that has been implemented by some these countries. The review may help to understand how the overall system works hence it shall provide the essential information in migrating and re-engineering current toll booth ETC lane system to MLFF system and serve as a reference view of the system concept in developing a new RFIDBased ETC system for MLFF
BI Group, Cambridge Systematics, Inc., “Background Paper #8: Toll Technology Considerations, Opportunities, and Risks,” Washington State Comprehensive Tolling Study. Final Report, Volume 2. Sept 20, 2006.
Committee of Electronic Toll Collection (ETC) technology for National Highways in India, NHAI's ETC report. National Highways Authority of India. New Delhi, India. April, 2010.
R. Rohrig, and J. Harding, “International View on ETC. TUV Rheinland Inter Traffic GmbH, Germany,” International Green and Smart Mobility Forum, Taipei, Taiwan, 2014.
Sharma, Priyanka., and Sharma, Vivek. “Electronic toll collection technologies: A state of art review,” International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering, vol.4, Issue 7, July 2014.
YanboWu, Quan Z. Sheng, and Sherali Zeadally , “RFID: Opportunities and Challenges,” Next-Generation Wireless Technologies. Part II, Computer Communications and Networks. Springer London, 2013,ISBN: 978-1-4471-5163-0.
Samadi, Saeed, “Applications and Opportunities for Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Technology in Intelligent Transportation Systems: A Case Study,” International Journal of Information and Electronics Engineering, vol. 3, May 2013.
Vadali, Ramkrishna., et. al., “Electronic toll collection using RFID and mobile application,” International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 5, Issue 2, February-2014. IJSER 2014.
Committee of Electronic Toll Collection (ETC) technology for National Highways in India, NHAI's ETC report. National Highways Authority of India. April, 2010. New Delhi, India.
Wei Du, Wei Chen. “ETC development pushes combination of RFID and ITS,” Feb. 13~16, 2011.
Anand Parekar, Rohan Kankapurkar, Akshay Mohite. et. al.,
“Implementations of RFID Based Toll Collection System,”International Journal of Enhanced Research in Management & Computer Applications, vol. 3, no. 10, Oct 2014.
Rakhi Kalantri et. al, “RFID Based Toll Collection System. Fr. C. R. I. T., Vashi, University of Mumbai, India,” International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technologies, vol. 5, no. 2, 2014.
ETC-Apex Committee. Electronic Toll Collection. Report by Apex Committee for ETC Implementation. Government of India, September 2011.
V, Sathya, and Abdul Samath, “Automatic Toll Collection Centre (ATCC) Using GSM/GPS Proposal for Indian Toll Booths,”
International Journal on Computer Science and Technologies, 2015.
Directorate-General for Mobility and Transport. Guide For the Application of the Directive on the Interoperability of Electronic Road Toll Systems. The European Electronic Toll Service (EETS). European Union, 2011.
Gleave, Steer Davies. et. al., Technology options for the European Electronic Toll Service. European Union, 2014. Directorate General for Internal Policies.
Zhihuo. Feng. et. al. “Design and Realization of Expressway Vehicle Path Recognition and ETC System based on RFID,” IEEE. 2010.
Zhengang, Ren. And Yingbo, Gao. “Design of Electronic Toll
Collection System in Expressway Based on RFID.” Guizhou University,
Guiyang, China. IEEE, Computer Society, 2009.
Thober. Dr. Dario Sassi. (2012). Electronic Vehicle Registration in Sao Paulo, Brazil. IBTTA Summit on All-Electronic Toll Collection. July, 2012.
Von Braun Labs. São Paulo’s All Electronic Tolling System. São Paulo’s All Electronic Tolling System, The newest multi-lane-free-flow (MLFF) system, 2015.
Wernher von Braun. Centro de Pesquisas Avançadas., “Smart City, Internet of Everything and Intelligent Transportation.” Eletron / ABINEE, April 2014.
Far Eastern Electronic Toll Collection. Taiwan RFID-based ETC Total Solution. The largest multi-lane free flow and distance-based system in the world, 2014.
Chang, YC. Taiwan ETC Development. Mar 3, 2015.
YC Chang. ETC Total Solution. Far Eastern Electronic Toll Collection Co.,Ltd. December, 2014.
ITS International. Upgrading Turkey's tolling system, April,
Vendeka. HGS (Passive RFID ETC in Turkey) is in Operation. 2014.
A Emirhan Ozdemir. Clear Recent Hist ory. Thinking Highways. 2014. http://thinkinghighways.com/clear.
How to Cite
TRANSFER OF COPYRIGHT AGREEMENT
The manuscript is herewith submitted for publication in the Journal of Telecommunication, Electronic and Computer Engineering (JTEC). It has not been published before, and it is not under consideration for publication in any other journals. It contains no material that is scandalous, obscene, libelous or otherwise contrary to law. When the manuscript is accepted for publication, I, as the author, hereby agree to transfer to JTEC, all rights including those pertaining to electronic forms and transmissions, under existing copyright laws, except for the following, which the author(s) specifically retain(s):
- All proprietary right other than copyright, such as patent rights
- The right to make further copies of all or part of the published article for my use in classroom teaching
- The right to reuse all or part of this manuscript in a compilation of my own works or in a textbook of which I am the author; and
- The right to make copies of the published work for internal distribution within the institution that employs me
I agree that copies made under these circumstances will continue to carry the copyright notice that appears in the original published work. I agree to inform my co-authors, if any, of the above terms. I certify that I have obtained written permission for the use of text, tables, and/or illustrations from any copyrighted source(s), and I agree to supply such written permission(s) to JTEC upon request.