Simulation Analysis and Electromagnetic Dosimetry of Patch Antenna on Hugo Voxel Model


  • B.S. Yew Faculty of Innovative Design and Technology, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kampus Gong Badak, 21300 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia
  • F.H. Wee Embedded Computing Research Cluster, School of Computer and Communication Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Jalan Kangar-Alor Star, Taman Pertiwi Indah Seriab, 01000 Kangar, Perlis, Malaysia.
  • S. Bahri
  • M. Muhamad Faculty of Innovative Design and Technology, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kampus Gong Badak, 21300 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia


Patch antenna, Off-body, On-body, Specific absorption rate (SAR),


The off-body, on-body simulation analysis and electromagnetic dosimetry of a simple structure patch antenna operating in 2.45 GHz ISM band is presented. The antenna design is based on conventional structure with flexible substrate features and copper as the conductive plane. The simulation analysis was performed in CST Microwave Studio. Anatomic simulation using HUGO voxel model was used for on-body simulation and electromagnetic dosimetry. For off-body analysis, the antenna resonates at 2.45 GHz with S11 parameter of -32.56 dB and radiates unidirectionally with efficiency of 91.96 %. It was found that the presence of human lossy tissues and organs caused frequency detuning of 50.4-51.5 MHz and radiation efficiency degradation of 7.93 % to 13.78 %. The electromagnetic dosimetry on specific absorption rate (SAR) exposure of the antenna when it is mounted over averaged 10 g of tissues for chest, back, abdomen, arm and thigh was well below the IEEE Std. C95.3 limit. The maximum and minimum SAR was found when the antenna was placed on the back (0.332 W/kg) and arm (0.121 W/kg) respectively on the human body. Varying the distance from 0-20 mm of the antenna from the human body reduces the SAR exposure to the human body.


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How to Cite

Yew, B., Wee, F., Bahri, S., & Muhamad, M. (2017). Simulation Analysis and Electromagnetic Dosimetry of Patch Antenna on Hugo Voxel Model. Journal of Telecommunication, Electronic and Computer Engineering (JTEC), 9(1-4), 37–40. Retrieved from